Deformities are often produced by corsets. The organs are pushed down; then there is compression from the liver being forced against it. Indeed, the stomach may be pushed in all directions by corset pressure, causing difficult breathing, palpitation, etc. A high stomach means hearty eating; a pendulous abdomen means debility and visceroptosis (falling or prolapsus of the viscera). Medium enlargement in the upper part indicates enlargement or dilation; and dilation means overeating, fermentation, and gas distention.

Depression at the pit of the stomach, when the patient is turned on the side, indicates inanition--great weakness. A bulging at this point means distention of the stomach. Flattening below the navel, with protrusion below, means visceroptosis.

Palpation discovers sensitiveness. A general sensitiveness to touch, without fever, indicate a general toxin infection from gastro-intestinal decomposition of food. In these cases there are usually constipation, colitis, catarrh of the womb, piles, etc.

To palpate the abdomen successfully, the patient should lie on the back, with legs flexed on thighs and thighs flexed to a right angle to the abdomen. The hands of the examiner must be warm; otherwise contractions will occur.

The sloshing sound or clapotage (a sound like that obtained by shaking a bladder half filled with water) should not be heard six hours after eating. When it is, it indicates dilation, ptosis, slow digestion, cancer of the stomach, etc.

Pyloric thickening, or cancer of the pylorus, is felt as a hard lump or tumor at the right of, and two or three inches above, the navel. If this lump is found, and there is vomiting, every two or three days, of ingesta (previously eaten food) that were eaten, one, two, or three days before. and there is clapotage six or more hours after eating, and this sound can be elicited at all times, except immediately after lavages, or until heavy vomiting takes place in advanced cases, the ejecta will present blood of a grumous character. This symptom, with cachexia, means cancer. All cases can be cured by lavage and restricted diet before this stage is reached. Surgery will not cure after this stage, and it is not necessary before. If performed, it will handicap and inconvenience the patient for the remainder of his life. These cases are non-cancerous at the start, and, if properly treated, should recover.

No case should be pronounced cancer until everything has been done that can be. The surgeon is an advocate of his calling, and will declare that surgery is the only cure. Indeed, it is never a cure, except when it fortunately removes a cause.

The stomach should be washed out daily, and the patient properly dieted. If attended to carefully, many cases pronounced cancer can be saved.

A dilated transverse colon may give out the peculiar clapotage sound; but there is always more tympanitis with the colonic affection, and the sound is farther below and at the points marked by the ascending and descending colon.

A tumorous state of the pylorus and the great curve of the stomach--the left of the stomach--can usually be palpated, while it is more difficult to discover tumifactions of the cardia or esophageal orifice.