1. Alkaline Waters

Vichy, in France; Ems, in Germany; Fachingen, in Germany; Saratoga Vichy (rich in C02), New York; St. Louis Springs, Michigan (poor in C02); Bethesda Springs, Wisconsin.

Other sodium chloride waters, containing also carbonates and C02, are those of Hathorn Spring, Congress Spring, and Kissengen Spring, in Saratoga, New York; Homburg, Wiesbaden, Kissengen, and Seltzers, in Germany; Bourbonne, in France.

The alkaline waters all contain more or less carbon dioxide, and their most important ingredients are the alkaline carbonates.

They also contain sodium chloride, and sometimes sodium sulphate. Some have one variety of salts, some another, which preponderates. Generally speaking, the European waters are richer in alkalies than are the American.

Alkaline waters are useful in the uric-acid diathesis and lithaemic conditions, gout, chronic rheumatism, obesity, hepatic engorgement, gallstones, hyperacidity of the gastric juice, chronic gastric ulcer, and catarrhs of the mucous membranes, especially of the stomach, respiratory tract, and bladder.

2. Alkaline Sulphur Waters

Richfield Springs, Sharon Springs, Avon Springs, in New York; Greenbrier White Sulphur Springs, in West Virginia; Harrogate, in England; Neuendorf and Meinberg, in Germany; Aix-la-Chapelle, in Rhenish Prussia.

These waters, containing sulphuretted hydrogen in addition to other ingredients, are much used in gout, chronic rheumatism, obesity, and chronic eczema. They are often supplemented by a course of chalybeate waters.

Hot springs are found at the Hot Sulphur Springs of Arkansas and Virginia, and Schlangenbad and Plombieres, in Europe.

3. Alkaline And Saline Purges

Alkaline And Saline Purges contain a high percentage of sodium and magnesium sulphates. These waters are often called "bitter waters;'

Such are: Piillna, in Bohemia (the strongest of all, and one of the oldest known); Carlsbad (Sprudel) and Marienbad (Kreuz-brunnen), in Bohemia; Friedrichshall, in Germany; Franz Josef, in Austria; Kissengen Bitterwater, in Bavaria; Hunyadi Janos, in Hungary; Rubinat Condal Spring and Villacabras, in Spain; Epsom, in England; Crab Orchard, Estill Springs, in Kentucky; Bedford Springs, in Pennsylvania; some of the Saratoga waters, and Mount Clement Spring, in Michigan, which latter water contains iron.

These waters are useful to counteract indiscretions in diet and the overloading of the liver.

The Rubinat water is effective and possesses the advantage of being less disagreeable than many of the others.

Villacabras water is a Spanish sodium sulphate, strongly purgative water, obtained not far from Madrid.

These waters should be taken either very cold or in a half-pint of very hot water. If drunk lukewarm their taste is nauseous, and may excite emesis. The dose varies from two to six or eight ounces.

4. Chalybeate Waters

Schwalbach (Stahlbrunnen), Pyrmont (Neubrunnen) Spa, Belgium; St. Moritz, Switzerland; Rock Enon, Virginia. These waters serve as tonics for the blood and nerves, but if too long used they cause dyspepsia and anaemia.

5. Acidulous waters contain C02 in excess, and but little salts of any kind. Such are the waters of Clysmic Spring, in Wisconsin; Blue Lick, in Kentucky; Carlsbad (Dorotheenquelle), in Bohemia.

6. Various waters are the Alum Springs, in Virginia; Oak Orchard Acid Spring, in New York; Bourboule, in France, which contains arsenic. Roncegno water is a ferruginous arsenical water from the Tyrolean Province of Trent.