Directions For Formula 6. Sugar

In formula 6 granulated sugar should be used instead of milk sugar. Introduce the same into the vessel to the line thus marked.

Barley Gruel

In formula 6 barley gruel should be used instead of water and filled to the line thus marked. Barley gruel should be prepared as follows:

To one tablespoonful of pearl barley (after soaking several hours) add one pint of water, a pinch of salt, and boil for five or six hours, adding water as it boils away. Strain through muslin. Or add:

One rounded tablespoonful of Robinson's barley flour; rub up with cold water, and add to one pint of boiling water; cook fifteen minutes, stirring, and strain if lumpy.

According to Rotch, "certain breeds of cows are better than others for copying human milks".

List of Breeds best Adapted for Modified Milk, with Analyses (Rotch)

Fat.

Milk sugar.

Albuminoids.

Mineral matter.

Total solids.

Water.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Durham

4.O4

4.34

4.17

0.73

13.28

86.72

Devon

4.O9

4.32

4.04

O.76

13.21

86.79

Ayrshire

3.89

4.41

4.OI

0.73

13.04

86.96

Holstein-Friesian

2.88

4.33

3.99

O.74

II.94

88.06

American grades

4.01

4.36

4.06

O.74

13.17

86.83

Common natives

3.69

4.35

4.09

0.73

12.86

87.14

The Jersey cow may yield more than 6 per cent of fat.

"The time of the year, the food and care given to the cattle, the month of lactation, and manner of milking - all exert such a profound influence, that the fat may be lower than 2.5 per cent or as high as 8 per cent" (C. E. Woodruff, U. S. A.).

Many so-called "milk foods" are sold for infant and invalid use. Their object is to furnish a ready-made substitute for fresh milk, which is easy of preparation even by an unintelligent nurse. Generally speaking, the continued use of such foods, especially for young growing infants, is to be condemned whenever fresh milk is obtainable, but in travelling at sea, or wherever good milk is not procurable, and in other emergencies, they may be resorted to with advantage, until more favourable conditions obtain. Analyses of some of the best known of these foods are appended below, and compared with the composition of mother's milk.

Name of Food.

Analysed by.

Water.

Sugar.

Dextrin.

Starch.

Fat.

Albuminoids.

Ash.

Solubility in water.

Ideal mother's milk

4.00

46.78

23.39

23.39

2.44

Very soluble.

Malted milk

Rach.

3.27

46.63

I7.I6

6.78

22.26

3.90

"

Nestle's milk food....

4.51

37.47

4.84

33.22

5.17

I3.00

1.59

Insoluble.

Camrick's soluble food

"

5.91

30.12

9.14

38.08

2.96

IO.75

3.02

"

Lacto preparata

5.80

63.38

12.35

14. 51

3,66

"

Lactated food

7.80

28.66

IO.33

35.17

1.82

13.48

2 77

"

Malted milk

Leeds.

2.18

50.40

16.09

5.57

3.30

T6.88

3.13

Nestle's milk food....

"

4.72

18.95

40.IO

1.91

8.23

1.59

Camrick's soluble food

3.42

27.08

37.37

7.45

10.25

4.42

Soluble.

Lacted food

7.76

29.65

9.35

36.43

1.64

11.85

2.61

Camrick's soluble food

Stutzer.

5.I7

28.11

41.50

5.53

16.69

3.00

Soluble.

Lacted food

"

6.52

25.52

52.92

2.19

9.05

2.26

Lacto preparata is a preparation of pure selected milk from which the cream has been removed by centrifugal force, and for it is substituted cacao butter, which keeps better and is quite nutritious. Lime water is then added and the mixture is sterilised, evaporated, powdefced, and sealed hermetically in cans.

The other foods of the list above given all contain considerable starch, and will therefore be described in the section upon Prepared Farinaceous Foods.

Gustav Gaertner's Mother Milk, according to Theodore Escherich, contains in percentages, albumin, 1.76; cream, 3.0 to 3.5; lactose, 2.5; ash, 0.35, thus closely approximating the composition of human milk, except that it has less sugar. The fresh cow's milk is mixed with sterilised water and placed in a centrifugal separator to remove impurities and separate the superfluous casein, without removing the fat, to form proportions more closely resembling those of human milk. The casein curds of this prepared milk are much more flocculent than those of the original cow's milk. By this process the milk also loses a half of the original salts and sugar, but the latter is easily added again when desired. The milk is sealed hermetically in tin cans, in which it keeps fresh for a year or two.