(A) Breadmaking

The making of bread is possibly the most important of all cooking processes now in use.

Bread is a mixed food containing fat, protein, salts, sugar, and starch; it does not contain enough fat to be a perfect food, and hence the almost universal custom of using butter with it.

The chemical composition of bread is thus given by Atwater: -

Water. Protein.


White Bread..




Brown Bread..




The whole process of breadmaking aims at converting the dough (flour and water) into a porous mass.

Dough is prepared by kneading together by hand or machinery the necessary proportions of flour and warm water. A pound of bread is made from 3/4 lb. of flour by the addition of 25 per cent, of water. The porosity of bread, which distinguishes it from biscuit, is obtained by the disengagement within the mass of carbonic acid gas, according to one of three methods: - (1) Fermentation, the carbonic acid gas" being produced by the use of yeast, or by a leaven of dough already fermenting; (2) by the use of baking powders, the ordinary domestic baking powder being bicarbonate of soda and tartaric acid; and (3) by the use of carbonic acid gas under pressure, by means of machinery, giving aerated bread.