The pulses may be used fresh or dried, whole and ground into flour; green peas, broad beans, French beans, cooked in the ordinary way, or served with poached or scrambled eggs, are excellent. The large variety of dried pulses are very nutritious: lentils, red or German peas split, dried green and giant green peas, can be used for soup, stews, or cutlets. Brown beans, haricot beans and butter beans, midget butter beans, are used in a similar manner. Vegetable soups made with any of the pulses are excellent; German lentils and brown beans produce a very good brown soup.

The Animal Fats are replaced by oil from nuts, and these are largely used by vegetarians for table butter and for cooking purposes. There are now a number of first-rate fats to suit different tastes and purposes, some having very much the appearance and consistency of lard, others closely resembling prepared suet, while yet others are not unlike dairy butter. These are used for frying, for suet puddings, for pastry, and for table use. One most like dairy butter is Mapleton's butter, sent out in two qualities, table and cooking qualities. Albenc is a hard, white fat, and serves all the purposes for which lard and dripping are used. Cocoa-nut butter, of the London Nut Food Company, can also be used for cooking. Pine kernels and Vegsu are good substitutes for suet. Most of these fats are put up in I and 2 lb. tins, and cost about 8d. or 9d. per pound.

The nut cream butters retain the nut flavour. Mapleton's walnut cream butter and almond cream butter are generally liked. The nut butter of the International Health Association is made from cooked nuts only, and may be used in soups or stews for thickening, or when diluted forms a nut milk. The same firm also prepares an almond butter for table use which is specially adapted for those with weak digestion.

The Cereals are largely used by vegetarians for porridge, and, in addition to the well-known oatmeal, Quaker oats, and barley meal, one may mention Artox flour, a whole-wheat meal which makes most excellent porridge, as well as scones and pastry; Banana oats is a recent preparation, and is appetising to some palates. It is easily prepared, and is put up in 3d. packets with directions. Banana flour is like rice flour, and is useful for puddings. Robinson's patent groats and Manhu whole-wheat flour, and pure malted barley-meal, also all make excellent porridge. "Kornules " is another good grain food; it is a pure wheat product in granular form, and is ready cooked, and so can be used to prepare a hasty meal. Grape nuts are also much liked.

The so-called breakfast foods consist generally of cereals alone, and are predigested, or so heated as to be easy of digestion. Shredded wheat biscuits, granose flakes, toasted wheat flakes, Ralston's food and Avenola, are combinations of cooked grains, and make excellent porridge; all are satisfactory foods. Nut cream rolls and nut cream biscuits are made from wheatmeal, or treated with nut butter, and are other forms in which cereals are utilised in the dietary of vegetarians.

Fruitarian Cakes are also useful adjuncts to the vegetarians. There are many varieties, but they are alike in being composed of uncooked fruits and nuts, freed from stones and skins, but otherwise in their natural state. They are compressed into small cakes or slabs. Pitman Company, Birmingham, prepares about one and a half dozen varieties of these cakes, and will supply twelve cakes for 8d. They prepare a cyclist's luncheon for 6d., consisting of fruitarian cake and banana biscuits. The London Nut Food Company have several dainty fruit and nut cakes covered with chocolate. Mapleton, Manchester, have a large number of cakes; pear with walnut, and apricot may be specially recommended.


In the dietary of the vegetarian, gelatine is replaced by Agar-agar, a product derived from a Japanese seaweed. (Chapman, Liverpool, prepares table jellies made from this).


Tea, coffee, cocoa, and chocolate are all permissible to the vegetarian; but to avoid the stimulating effects of the xanthin in tea and coffee, many vegetarians now take some of the cereal coffees now to be had. These strongly resemble coffee in appearance and flavour, are refreshing, and free from caffeine. They are prepared by a certain roasting and grinding process from various grains; e.g. Postum, prepared by the Grape Nut Company; Caramel cereal, prepared by the International Health Association; and Lapee, prepared by Mapleton, Manchester. These, while similar in nature and composition, differ somewhat in flavour, so that various tastes can be suited. They can be prepared as ordinary coffee, but are the better of a few minutes' boiling. Banana coffee is a pleasant beverage, with a flavour not unlike that of ordinary coffee.

A pure vegetable albumin,"Roborat" (Vegetarian Society, Deansgate, Manchester), is now obtainable, and claims to contain 94 per cent, albumin, and is tasteless. It is the protein of wheat extracted and concentrated, and is especially useful in invalid dietary, and in helping to enrich the food of those who are otherwise unable to take the necessary amount of food. It can be added to any food, in powder form, or better still, by dissolving it by cooking for a few minutes in water. It can also be obtained made up with cocoa or chocolates. Emprote (Miles) is another concentrated vegetable protein, which may be added to all sorts of dishes to increase the otherwise low protein value of the diet. It is practically tasteless, and soluble.

Vegetarian Cheese is made from nut milk, and is practically identical with ordinary soft cream cheese.

The fruitarian finds it more easy to maintain a satisfactory state of health. Milk supplies the animal protein in an easily assimilable form which is not possible in strict vegetarianism.

The purin-free dietary is useful in certain diseased states. A description of it will be found on p. 531.

The lacto-vegetarian diet is frequently a valuable system of dietetics. It is useful during childhood in the children of gouty parents, in cases of high blood-pressure and chronic renal disease, in many cases of rheumatism and gout, and in other conditions.