Experimental Dietaries

An example of the first method of formulating dietaries is that of Professor Atwater's respiration calorimeter, sometimes called "the man in a box," described in one of the government pamphlets. A small room was constructed in the laboratory with flues arranged to bring in fresh air and to carry off the products of respiration. Each of these flues was arranged so that the temperature and composition of the air entering and going out might be determined. A man lived in this room for several days at a time, his food being given to him by means of slides in a double wall. A sample of each food given was analyzed and a determination of the number of calories yielded by it made by means of the bomb calorimeter. All food taken was carefully weighed, and the excreta of the body were analyzed so that an accurate estimate could be made of the total income and outgo of the body. See illustration on page 32.

Statistical Dietaries

Many statistical dietaries have been taken, some of the most valuable being those of the German army. Experiments have been made there as to the effect of the addition of certain articles of food to the diet, and the conclusions have been of much value. Similar dietary studies have been made at many schools and universities.

Standard Dietaries

From a careful comparison of dietaries made up in these two ways certain standards have been determined upon. The American standards vary in some important points, notably in the amount of fat used, from those of Europe. Some of these dietaries are given here.

Volt

Proteid Grams

Fat Grams

Carbohydrat's Grams

Total Grams

Calories

92

44

urn

536

2425

Man at moderate work (German).............

118

56

500

674

3055

Man at hard work (German)..................

145

100

450

005

3370

Playfair.

Man with moderate exercise (English).......

119

51

531

701

3140

Active laborer (English)......................

156

71

568

795

3630

185

71

568

824

3750

Atwaler.

Woman with light exercise (American)......

80

80

300

460

2300

Man with light exercise (American)........

100

100

360

560

2815

Man at moderate work (American)...........

125

125

450

700

3520

Man at hard work (American).............

150

150

500

800

4060

There are twenty-eight and thirty-four hundredths grams (28.34) in one ounce. A man at moderate work requires, therefore, according to the American standard, about four and one-half ounces of proteid, four and one-half ounces of fat, and nearly a pound of carbohydrate daily.