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Food And Dietetics | by Alice Peloubet Norton



The problems of the household are more difficult to-day than they have ever been, for each advance in science, each modern invention, has brought in its train new responsibilities and new duties. In every department of the administration of the home more knowledge and skill are required than ever before. With the increase of conveniences has come increased care. Standards of living have changed as well, and greater perfection in all household service is demanded of the home-maker...

TitleFood And Dietetics
AuthorAlice Peloubet Norton
PublisherAmerican School Of Home Economics
Year1911
Copyright1910, Home Economics Association
AmazonFood and Dietetics

By Alice Peloubet Norton, M. A, Assistant Professor Of Home Economics, School Of Education, University Of Chicago, Director Of The Chautauqua School Of Domestic Science

Food And Dietetics 3College Of Education, University Of Chicago.

College Of Education, University Of Chicago.

-Introduction
Dear Madam.: In the study of the lessons on Food and Dietetics, full use should be made of the many interesting and valuable publications of the United States Department of Agriculture These are di...
-Food And Dietetics
Problems Of To-Day THE problems of the household are more difficult to-day than they have ever been, for each advance in science, each modern invention, has brought in its train new responsibilitie...
-The Cost Of Food
The first practical question that will appeal to the housekeeper in regard to food is its cost. Long before she asks what proportion of carbohydrate, of fat, and of proteid she must provide for her fa...
-The Cost Of Food. Part 2
True Food Economy It is not desirable to cut down the expenditure for food to the lowest point at which nutritive food may be obtained if the income justifies a larger expenditure. Economy does not...
-The Cost Of Food. Part 3
Economical Cookery On the other hand, Thudicum, in his Spirit of Cookery, refers to the delusion of economical cookery with scraps costing nothing. He speaks of what is termed the fearful waste ...
-The Cost Of Food. Part 4
Finding The Cost Of Food The most satisfactory way to get at the cost of food per individual in a family is to keep careful accounts over a considerable period of time, both of the actual expenditu...
-The Cost Of Food. Part 5
Experience Of College Girls Table III is a record from the middle west, and is taken directly from the expense account of three college girls who were trying to keep the cost of living as low as po...
-The Cost Of Food. Part 6
Liberal Table With High Prices Table IV shows the expenditure in a summer home in the mountains. In this case no effort was made to reduce expense by excluding articles desired, but true economy wa...
-The Cost Of Food. Part 7
A Typical Investigation In February, 1902, the students of the Bible Normal College, situated then in Springfield, Mass., voted to save a sum of money, which they desired to raise for a special ob...
-The Cost Of Food. Part 8
The Family The family in this experiment consisted of 30 students - 26 women and 4 men - ranging in age from 25 to 45 years. Considering the 4 men as equivalent to 5 women as regards food consumpt...
-Food And The Body
Composition It is impossible to decide intelligently how the money available for food shall be distributed among different food materials without understanding something of the composition of these...
-Food And The Body. Part 2
Heat Heat is required to maintain the body temperature necessary in order that the processes of life may be carried on. Work The work performed may be considered as of two kinds, internal and...
-Food And The Body. Part 3
Mechanical Equivalent Of Heat It has been found,mat there is an exact quantitative relation betwen heat and work, expressed by the term mechanical equivalent of heat. Experiments have shown that ab...
-Food And The Body. Part 4
Chart Of Composition Of Foods Percentage Of Nutrients Of Edible Portion, I. E., Without Bone, Etc Digestibility Of Food The accompanying tables showing the comparative digestibility of some ...
-Food Principles
In this and other series of lessons we have already discussed the food principles to some extent. Let us consider them now somewhat more in detail. Proteids The proteids are more difficult to un...
-Carbohydrates
The carbohydrates are so called because they are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the last two in the proportion in which they are found in water. This last statement, although it...
-Starch
Starch is the most important of the carbohydrates from the standpoint of food. It is familiar to us all as the fine, white, glistening powder of corn starch and of laundry starch. We may easily, by ...
-Fats
The fats, like the carbohydrates, are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, but with these elements in very different proportions from that in which they exist in the carbohydrates. There is a much...
-Water And Mineral Matter
In discussing the value of a food we commonly consider only the organic principles. Although water is absolutely necessary it is so easily supplied and so abundant that we do not have to consider whet...
-Nutrient Ratio
By food value or nutritive value we ordinarily mean the amount of organic nutrients present in the food. In determining the importance of any particular food, we consider not only the total amount of ...
-Dietary Standards
Amount Of Food Required In addition to a knowledge of food constituents, of the proportion of which these exist in our food, and of the use of food in the body, we need to know the amount of food n...
-Dietary Standards. Part 2
Experimental Dietaries An example of the first method of formulating dietaries is that of Professor Atwater's respiration calorimeter, sometimes called the man in a box, described in one of the g...
-Dietary Standards. Part 3
Chittenden's Experiments The dietary standards that we have been considering are those that have been accepted generally since work of this kind was first begun. Some late experiments conducted at ...
-Dietary Standards. Part 4
Balanced Ration It is by no means a matter of indifference whether the proteid be derived from any one of these food materials, or from a mixture of different ones. The other food ingredients prese...
-Dietary Standards. Part 5
Practical Use Of Dietaries The question will probably come to each one - of how much practical use for the everyday housekeeper is this study of dietaries. In the first place, it would mean the exp...
-Dietary Standards. Part 6
Errors In Dietaries Another way in which the dietary standard is of especial service, is in enabling us to judge what error in diet is responsible for some particular weakness or peculiarity in any...
-Test Questions. Food And Dietetics. Part I
The following questions constitute the written recitation which the regular members of the A. S. H. E. answer in writing and send in for the correction and comment of the instructor. They are intend...
-Part II. Special Food Stuffs
Animal And Vegetable Food Stuffs In the selection of foods one of the questions that will come up will be that of the relative value of animal and vegetable foods. An increasing number of people ar...
-Meat
In the ordinary family the greater part of the proteid diet is probably furnished by meat, so that a knowledge of the composition and nutritive value of this article of food is important. The structur...
-Meat. Part 2
Fat Of Heat The fat in meat varies even more in amount than the proteid; beef, as purchased, containing from five and eight-tenths per cent to more than forty per cent. Even in meat that appears...
-Meat. Part 3
Cost Of Meat Meat does not form a cheap source of proteid food, but the cost can be lessened very much by care in selecting the cheaper cuts. As a rule these cheaper parts need longer cooking than ...
-Fish
Nutritive Value And Digestibility One of the most natural substitutes for meat is fish. Its nutritive value is much like that of meat, although it contains a somewhat smaller proportion of proteid....
-Fish. Continued
Variety In Diet Fish, beside being an economical source of nitrogenous substances, has much value in satisfying the demand for variety in food. Any lack in nutrients is frequently supplied by the s...
-Eggs
Composition One of the most general substitutes for meat is the egg. One would at first thought expect eggs to be of much the same composition as milk, since each funishes food for the growing anim...
-Milk
Tests Of A Perfect Food Milk is often called a perfect food. This is true, however, only in a limited sense. Hutchison gives five tests of a perfect food. First, such a food must contain all the...
-Milk. Part 2
A Food Not A Beverage Even at city prices milk might well be substituted to a certain extent for other proteid foods. The habit of many people of using milk simply as a beverage in addition to the ...
-Milk. Part 3
Boiled Milk Boiled milk has generally been considered less digestible than uncooked milk, but some experiments seem to contradict this. The experiment station bulletin states that when cow's milk h...
-Milk. Part 4
Mineral Matter The mineral matter of milk consists largely of potash and lime salts, and of these salts the phosphates are the most abundant. These are important, not only in the building of bone t...
-Milk Products
Butter The importance of milk is hardly greater than that of its two chief products, butter and cheese. Butter consists chiefly of the fat of the milk with a small amount of water, of casein and of...
-Milk Products. Continued
Cheese Cheese, so far as nutritive value is concerned, stands almost at the head of our list of foods. Since it is made from the curd of the milk, and the water has largely been disposed of in the ...
-Cereals And Their Products
Importance The most important of all our vegetable foods are without doubt cereals. Not only do they contain a large amount of nutriment, chiefly, but by no means wholly, in the form of carbohydrat...
-Cereals And Their Products. Part 2
Varieties The hard wheats contain a larger proportion of gluten, and therefore a smaller proportion of starch than do the soft wheats. Wheat from which macaroni is manufactured, is an exceedingly h...
-Cereals And Their Products. Part 3
Whole Wheat Flour So-called whole wheat flour contains the inner portion of the bran only. The cellulose is very finely divided, so that it is less irritating to the digestive organs than the bran ...
-Bread
History Bread was one of the earliest foods of man. That it was used long before history was written, the discoveries of modern times have shown us. In Switzerland, in the lake dwellings of prehist...
-Bread. Part 2
Leavening Agents Many different agents for lightening the dough have been used at various times. The ancient leaven was made by allowing flour and water to stand in a warm place till it fermented. ...
-Bread. Part 3
Graham And Whole Wheat Bread There has been discussion for many years over the comparative value of graham, whole wheat and white bread. Several years ago graham bread was urged upon every one as t...
-Sugar As Food
Mrs. Abel, in the government pamphlet Sugar as Food, calls attention to the fact that the consumption of sugar is everywhere increasing. In England eighty-six pounds per capita and in the United State...
-Test Questions. Food And Dietetics. Part II
Read Carefully. The following- U. S. Government Bulletins should be read in connection with this lesson: No. 34, Meat Composition and Cooking-; No. 85, Fish as Food; No. 128, Eggs and their Use as Foo...
-Food And Dietetics. Part III. Vegetables
An increasing importance is coming to be attached to the use of vegetables and fruits in the diet. Not only vegetarians but many others have found from experience that it is possible to live largely u...
-Vegetables. Part 2
Effect Of Cooking On Cellulose We usually speak of softening the cellulose by means of cooking. Apparently what we really do is to dissolve the intercellular substances that bind the walls together...
-Vegetables. Part 3
The Potato Among the vegetables, the potato, in this country at least, is the most generally used. It has of late been decried as having no food value. This is far from true. It has, of course, a s...
-Fruits
Classification Of Fruits Fruits may, like vegetables, be classified as flavor fruits and food fruits, and again these two classes will run together so that we shall have difficulty in deciding wher...
-Fruits. Continued
New Varieties New varieties of fruit produced by careful selection and cross fertilization are constantly appearing. Some of the most important changes that have been induced by cultivation have be...
-Nuts
Nutritive Value The form of fruits that we know as nuts has a very different place in diet from that of the ordinary fruit. We find here foods having a nutritive value that compares favorably with ...
-Tea
The common beverages, tea, coffee and cocoa, are in such general use today that it is difficult to realize that two of them were not introduced into Europe until the seventeenth century, and the other...
-Tea. Continued
Fermentation Process The chief difference between the black and green tea lies in this fermentation process. By this means, some of the tannic acid in the leaves is changed so that it becomes less ...
-Coffee
The coffee tree (caffaea arabica) belongs to the same botanical family as the tiny partridge berry found in our northern woods, the familiar button bush of the country roadside, and the gardenia. ...
-Cocoa
It is said that the earliest intimation of the introduction of cocoa into England is found in the announcement in the Public Advertiser of Tuesday, 16th June, 1657 (more than a hundred and thirty yea...
-Cocoa. Part 2
Chocolate The next step in the preparation of chocolate is the grinding of the nibs and running the semi-liquid product into molds. If sugar or any flavoring is to be added, it is done at this tim...
-Cocoa. Part 3
Physiological Effect Of Tea, Coffee And Cocoa The physiological effect upon the system of tea, coffee, and cocoa has been much discussed. Of the three, cocoa seems to have much less influence eithe...
-Adulteration Of Food
Pure Food Campaign Probably no food question has been so much discussed of late, or has appealed so generally to the public at large as that of food adulteration. Nearly all the states have passed ...
-Adulteration Of Food. Part 2
Glucose A circular advertising a certain breakfast food, after dividing glucose into good and bad kinds, introduces the following paragraph, saying that the definition is from the dictionary, Gluc...
-Adulteration Of Food. Part 3
Compound On the part of the housekeeper there should be a knowledge of materials, and ability to make simple tests, while for such tests as imply technical chemical knowledge material should be sen...
-Adulteration Of Food. Part 4
Government Statement The two sides of the case are stated as follows in the government pamphlet giving the result of the famous borax experiment. It is admitted by all who have examined the sub...
-Adulteration Of Food. Part 5
Home Tests Some of the simpler tests for food adulterants can be successfully used by the housekeeper even without technical training. The following methods of distinguishing between butter, ole...
-Adulteration Of Food. Part 6
Test For Aniline Colors Natural colors impart to the wool, when treated in this way, only a dull pinkish-brown color, quite different from the brilliant color of the artificial dye. In order to be...
-Special Diet
The housekeeper of today must know not only how to select food for the normal member of her household, and how to provide for the varying needs of different ages and activity, but she is many times ca...
-Special Diet. Part 2
Children's Parties The often objectionable children's party would be robbed of its evil effects if simple, attractive sandwiches were always provided in abundance before the ice cream and cake were...
-Special Diet. Part 3
Students' Diet Much has been said in regard to food for older students, and a number of studies of student diet have been made. A few points only can be considered. In the first place, the student ...
-Bibliography
A. B - Z of Our Own Nutrition ($1.00, postage .10). Horace Fletcher. Air, Water, and Food ($2.00, postage .18). Richards and Woodman. Corn Plants ($1.00, postage .08). F. L. Sargent. Cost of ...
-U. S. Department Of Agricultural Publications
Farmers' Bulletins Free, of the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. No. 34 Meats, Composition and Cooking. No. 42 Facts About Milk. No. 63 Care of Milk on the Farm. No...
-U. S. Department Of Agricultural Publications. Continued. Pure Food
Pure Food Circular No. 16 Officials charged with the Enforcement of Food Laws in the United States and Canada. Circular No. 17 Standards of Purity for Food Products. Circular No. 59 ...
-Test Questions
The following questions constitute the written recitation which the regular members of the A. S. H. E. answer in writing and send in for the correction and comment of the instructor. They are intend...
-Percentage Composition And Weight Of Nutrients Of Food Consumed
Weight, Ounces Per cent of Proteid Ounces of Proteid Per cent of Carbohydrate Ounces of Carbohydrate Per cent of Fat ...
-New Methods In Diet Calculations
THE ordinary method of figuring dietaries, using the tables of food by percentage composition, involves much tedious figuring so that such dietaries are very seldom calculated in practice. Although th...
-New Methods In Diet Calculations. Part 2
The Graphic Method Different foods contain the three food elements, proteids, fats and carbohydrates, in different proportions. The tripartite constitution of any particular food is represented in...
-New Methods In Diet Calculations. Part 3
Combinations The combination of two foods equal in calories is represented by a point midway between them. Thus, to combine one' portion' of bread and one' portion' of butter (Fig. 9) draw a strai...
-New Methods In Diet Calculations. Part 4
An educated appetite is the best guide for diet in health. In a diet for an invalid, foods may easily be served in standard portions or multiplies or fractions thereof, so that a physician's prescr...
-New Methods In Diet Calculations. Part 5
Food Values In Calories Per Ounce In some respects Dr. Kellogg's method of giving the composition of foods in food units (calories) per ounce is simpler and more useful in the actual calculation of...
-Protein Metabolism In Its Relation To Dietary Standards
Present views concerning the role of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in the animal organism are not essentially different from views that prevailed a generation ago. An earlier theory, brilliant but...
-Protein Metabolism In Its Relation To Dietary Standards. Part 2
Proportion Of Fats To Carbohydrates It is a well-known fact that if more fat than the animal organism can advantageously oxidize is supplied, such fat, in so far as it is absorbed, is stored as fat...
-Protein Metabolism In Its Relation To Dietary Standards. Part 3
Average Consumption It has frequently been asserted that the people at large do as a matter of fact consume on the average about 118 grams of protein per 70 kilos of weight. But I venture to insist...
-Protein Metabolism In Its Relation To Dietary Standards. Part 4
Dr. Folin's Studies My own studies of protein metabolism in man, though pursued in a different way and for a different purpose, have a direct bearing on the problem of the necessary minimum protein...
-Protein Metabolism In Its Relation To Dietary Standards. Part 5
Different Kinds Of Protein Metabolism These facts concerning urea and kreatinin suffice to show how entirely erroneous has been the assumption that the nitrogen of katabolized protein is always dis...
-Protein Metabolism In Its Relation To Dietary Standards. Part 6
Discussion Mrs. Abel I should like to ask Dr. Folin if he would recommend for tuberculosis patients a great deal of milk and eggs. Dr. Folin Any opinion I give must simply be my own. I sho...
-Supplemental Program Arranged For Class Study On Food And Dietetics
Meeting I (Study pages I - 29) The Food Problem. Food materials' and their Adulteration, by Ellen H. Richards. Chapter I. ($1.00, postage 10c.) Cost of Food, by Ellen H. Richards. Pages 1-7. ...
-Supplemental Program Arranged For Class Study On Food And Dietetics. Continued
Meeting IV (Study pages 63-116) Special Foods. Food and Dietetics, by Hutchison, and other standard books. Food Products of the World, by Green. ($1.50, postage 14c). Meat And Fish Meats, ...
-The Library Of Home Economics
A Complete Home-Study Course On The New Profession Of Home-Making And Art Of Right Living; The Practical Application Of The Most Recent Advances In The Arts And Sciences To Home And Health Prepared...
-Authors
Isabel Bevier, Ph. M Professor of Household Science, University of Illinois. Author U. S. Government Bulletins, Development of the Horno Economics Movement, Selection and Preparation of Food, e...







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