An educated appetite is the best guide for diet in health. In a diet for an invalid, foods may easily be served in " standard portions" or multiplies or fractions thereof, so that a physician's prescription as to food may be followed. It would, of course, be necessary to deduct food served but not eaten.

If it is desired to add further items to the table, the weight of a "standard portion" and the calories per cent is found from the percentage composition given in the Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 28, Chemical Composition of American Food Materials,* as follows: The weight in ounces of a "standard portion" is found by dividing 1,600 by the number of calories per pound given in the table.

The "calories per cent" of proteid is found by multiplying the percentage of proteid in the Bulletin table by 1,860 and dividing the result by the figure giving the numbers of calories per pound. The same calculation and the same factor 1,860 applies to carbohydrates. For fat the same calculation applies, but with the substitution of the factor 4,220 in place of 1,860. The three results may be verified by adding the resulting figures for proteid, fat and carbohydrate, the sum of which should be 100 per cent.

* For this Bulletin send 5 cents {coin) to the Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C.

### Table Of 100 Food Units

 Name of Food " Portion " Containing 100 Food Units (approx). Wt. of 100 Calories Per .cent of Grams Oz. Proteid Fat Carbohydrate COOKED MEATS †Beef.r'nd, boiled (fat) 1099‡.. Small serving. . 36 1.3 40 60 00 †Beef, r'd, boiled (lean) 1206‡ Large serving .. 62 2.2 90 10 00 †Beef, r'd, boiled (med.) ll88‡ Small serving . . 44 1.6 60 40 00 †Beef, 5th rib, roasted, 1538‡ Half serving. . . 18.5 .65 12 88 00 †Beef, 5th rib, roasted, 1616.‡. Small serving . . 32 1.2 25 75 00 †Beef, 5th rib, roasted, 1615‡. Very small s'v'g 25 .88 18 82 00 ‡Beef, ribs boiled, 1169‡ Small serving . . 30 1.1 27 73 00 †Beef, ribs boiled, 1170‡ Very small s'v'g 25 .87 21 79 00 *Claves foot jelly............... ......................... 112 4. 19 00 81 *Chicken, canned............ One thin slice... 27 .96 23 77 00 *Lamb chops, boiled, av...... One small chop 27 .96 24 76 00 *Lamb, leg, roasted.......... Ord. serving . . . 50 1.8 40 60 00 †Mutton, leg, boiled, 1184 ‡. . Large serving . . 34 1.2 35 65 00 †Pork, ham, boiled (fat) 1174‡ Small serving. . 20.5 .73 14 86 00 †Pork, ham, boiled, 1192‡. . . . Ord. serving . . . 32.5 1.1 28 72 00 †Pork, ham, r'st'd, (fat) 1484‡ Small serving . . 27 .96 19 81 00 †Pork, ham, r'st'd,(lean),1511‡ Small serving . . 34 1.2 33 67 00 *Turkey, as pur., canned..... Small serving . . 28 .99 23 77 00 †Veal, leg, boiled, 1182‡...... Large serving .. 67.5 2.4 73 27 00 UNCOOKED MEATS, EDIBLE PORTION *Beef, loin, av. (lean)........ Ord. serving... . 50 1.8 40 60 00 *Beef, loin, av. (fat)......... Small serving . . 30 1.1 22 78 00 *Beef, loin, p'house steak, av.. Small steak.... 36 1.3 32 68 00 *Beef, loin, sirloin steak, av.. . Small steak.... 40 1.4 31 69 00 *Beef, ribs, lean, av.......... Ord. serving . . . 52 1.8 42 58 00 *Beef, round, lean, av........ Ord. serving. . . 63 2.2 54 46 00 *Beef, tongue, average....... Ord. serving .. . 62 2.2 47 53 00 *Beef, juice........................ ....................... 395 14. 78 22 00 *Chicken (broilers), av...... Large serving .. 90 3.2 79 21 00 *Clams, r'nd in shell, av..... Twelve to 16... 210 7.4 56 8 36 *Cod, whole..................... Two servings.. . 138 4.9 95 5 00 *Goose (young) av............ Half serving . . . 25 .88 16 84 00 *Halibut steaks, av......... Ord. serving . . . 81 2.8 61 39 00 *Liver (veal) av.............. Two small s'v'g 79 2.8 61 39 00 *Lobster, whole, av...... Two servings. . . 117 4.1 78 20 2 *Mackerel (Span.), whole, av. Ord. serving . . . 57 2. 50 50 00 *Mutton leg, hind, lean, av.... Ord. serving . ... 50 1.8 41 59 00 *Oysters, in shell, av........ One dozen..... 193 6.8 49 22 29 *Pork, lion chops, av.......... Very small s'v'g 27 .97 18 82 00 *Pork, ham, lean. av.......... Small serving . . 36 1.3 29 71 00 *Pork, bacon, med. fat, av.... Small serving .. 15 .53 6 94 00 *Salmon (Cal.), average...... Small serving . . 42 1.5 30 70 00 Shad. whole, average......... Ord serving . . . 60 2.1 46 54 00 *Trout, brook, whole, av...... Two small s'v'g 100 3.6 80 20 00 *Turkey, average.................. Two small s'v'g 33 1.2 29 71 00
 Name of Food "Portion" Containing 100 FoodUnits (approx). Wt. of 100 Calories Per cent of Grams Oz. Proteid Fat Carbohydrate VEGETABLES *Artichokes, av. canned...... .. 430 15 14 0 86 *Asparagus av.canned... .... 540 19 33 5 62 *Asparagus, av. cooked...... .. 206 7.19 18 63 19 *Beans, baked, canned....... Small side dish.. 75 2.66 21 18 61 *Beans, Lima, canned....... Large side dish. 126 4.44 21 4 75 *Beans,string,cooked... Five servings.. . 480 16.66 15 48 37 *Beets edible portion, cooked. Three servings . 245 8.7 2 23 75 *Cabbage,edible portion... ... 310 11 20 8 72 *Carrots, edible pt., fresh..... ... 215 7.6 10 8 82 Carrots,cooked... Two servings. . 164 5.81 10 34 56 *Cauliflower, as purchased.... .. 312 11 23 15 62 *Celery, edible portion....... ... 540 19 24 5 71 Corn, sweet, cooked......... One side dish . . 99 3.5 13 10 77 *Cucumbers,edible pt... ... 565 20 18 10 72 *Egg plant, edible pt......... ... 350 12 17 10 73 Lentils, cooked... .... 89 3.15 27 1 72 *Lettuce,edible pt... ... 505 18 25 14 61 *Mushrooms,as purchased... .. 215 7.6 31 8 61 *Onions, fresh, edible pt...... ... 200 7.1 13 5 82 *Onions,cooked... Two large s'v'gs 240 8.4 12 40 48 *Parsnips, edible pt.......... 1 1/2 serving.. . . 152 5.3 10 7 83 Parsnips,cooked... ... 163 5.84 10 34 56 *Peas,green,canned... Two servings. . . 178 6.3 25 3 72 *Peas,green,cooked... One serving. . . . 85 3 23 27 50 Potatoes,baked... One good sized. 86 3.05 11 1 88 *Potatoes,boiled... One large sized. 102 3.62 11 1 88 *Potatoes, mashed (creamed). One serving. . . . 89 3.14 10 25 65 Potatoes,steamed... One serving. . . . 101 3.57 11 1 88 *Potatoes, chips............. One-half s'v'g. . 17 .6 4 63 33 *Potatoes, sweet, cooked..... Half av. potato. 49 1.7 6 9 85 *Pumkpins,edible pt... .... 380 13 15 4 81 Radishes, as purchased...... ... 480 17 18 3 79 Rhubarb, edible, pt......... .... 430 15 10 27 63 *Spinach,cooked... Two ord. s'v'g.. 174 6.1 15 66 19 Squach,edible pt... ... 210 7.4 12 10 78 *Succotash, canned.......... Ord. serving . . . 100 3.5 15 9 67 *Tomatoes, fresh as purchased Four av........ 430 15 15 16 69 Toamtoes,canned... ... 431 15.2 21 7 72 *Turnips,edible pt... Two large s'v'g 246 8.7 13 4 83 Vegetable oysters... ... 273 9.62 10 51 39 FRUITS (DRIED) 34 1.2 3 7 90 Apricots, as purchased...... 35 1.24 7 3 90 *Dates ,edible portion... Three large. . . . 28 .99 2 7 91 *Dates, as purchased........ ... 31 1 .1 2 7 91 *Figs, edible portion......... One large...... 31 1.1 5 0 95 *Prunes, edible portion....... Three large.. . . 32 1.14 3 0 97 *Prunes,as purchased... ... 38 1.35 3 0 97 *Raisins,edible portion... ... 28 1. 3 9 88 *Raisins,as purchased... ... 31 1.1 3 9 88
 Name of Food " Portion " Containing 100 Food Units (approx). Wt. of 100 Calories Per cent of Grams Oz. Proteid Fat Carbohydrate FRUITS (FRESH OR COOKED) * Apples, aa purchased....... . Two apples.. . . 206 7.3 3 7 90 Apples,baked... ... 94 3.3 2 5 93 Apples, sauce............. . Ord. serving. . . 111 3.9 2 5 93 *Apricots, edible pt........ ... 168 5.92 8 0 92 Apricots, cooked.......... . Large serving. . 131 4.61 6 0 94 *Bananas, edible pt......... . One large...... 100 3.5 5 5 90 *Blackberries... .. 170 5.9 9 16 75 Blueberries... .. 128 4.6 3 8 89 *Blueberries, canned........ .. 165 5.8 4 9 87 Cantaloupe............... . Half or. serv'g . 243 8.6 6 0 94 *Cherries,edible portion... .... 124 4.4 5 10 85 *Cranberries, as purchased.. ..... 210 7.5 3 12 85 *Grapes,as purchased av... .. 136 4.8 5 15 80 Grape fruit... ... 215 7.57 7 4 89 Grape juice............... . Small glass..... 120 4.2 0 0 100 Gooseberries... ... 261 9.2 5 0 95 Lemons... ... 215 7.57 9 14 77 *Lemons juice... ... 246 8.77 0 0 100 Nectarins... ... 147 5.18 4 0 96 Olives,ripe... . About seven.. . 37 1.31 2 91 7 Oranges, as purchased, av... . One very large. 270 9.4 6 3 91 *Oranges,ripe... . Large glass. . . . 188 6.62 0 0 100 Peaches, as purchased av.. . . Three ordinary. 290 10. 7 2 91 *Peaches, sauce............ . Ord. serving. . . 136 4.78 4 2 94 Peaches, juice............. . Ordinary glass . 136 4.80 0 0 100 Pears... . One large pear. 173 5 40 4 7 89 *Pears,sauce... .. 113 3.98 3 4 93 Pineapples, edible p't'n, av. ... 226 8. 4 6 90 *Raspberries, black.... .. 146 5.18 10 14 76 Raspberries, red........... 178 6.29 8 0 92 Strawberries, av............ . Two servings... 260 9.1 10 15 75 *Watermelon, av........... ... 760 27. 6 6 88 DAIRY PRODUCTS *Butter................... . Ordinary pat. . . 12.5 .44 .5 99.5 00 *Buttermilk............... . 1 1/2 glass....... 275 97 34 12 54 *Cheese, Am., pale......... . 1 1/2 cubic in.. . . 22 .77 25 73 2 *Cheese,cottage... . 4 cubic in.. . . 89 3.12 76 8 16 *Cheese,full cream... . 1 1/2 cubic in.. . . 23 .82 25 73 2 *Cheese, Neufchatel........ . 1 1/2 cubic in.. . . 29.5 1.05 22 76 2 *Cheese, Swiss............. . 1 1/2 cubic in.. . . 23 .8 25 74 1 *Cheese,pineapple... . 1 1/2 cubic in.. . . 20 .72 25 73 2 *Cream... 1/4 ord. glass .. 49 1 .7 5 8o Kumyas... .. 188 6.7 21 37 42 *Milk, condensed, sweetened .. 30 1.06 10 23 67 *Milk, condensed, unsweet'd .. 59 2 05 24 50 26 *Milk,skimmed... . 1 1/2 glass....... 255 9.4 37 7 56 *Milk, whole............... . Small glass..... 140 4.9 19 52 29 Milk,human, 2nd week... ... 162 5.7 11 47 42 Milk,human,3rd month... .. 171 6 7 46 47 *Whey... Two glasses. . . . 360 13 15 10 75
 Name of Food " Portion " Containing 100 Food Units (approx). Wt.of 100 Calories Per cent of Grams Oz. Proteid Fat Carbohydrate CAKES, PASTRY, PUDDINGS AND DESSERTS *Cake,chocolate layer... . . Half ord. sq. pc 28 .98 7 22 71 *Cake ,gingerbread... . . Half ord. sq. pc 27 .96 6 23 71 Cake, sponge . ........... . Small piece .... 25 .89 7 25 68 Custard, caramel......... .... 71 2.51 19 10 71 Custard,milk... . . Ordinary cup . . 122 4.29 26 56 18 Custard,tapioca... . . Two-thirds ord. 69.5 2.45 9 12 79 *Doughnuts.............. . Half a doughn't 23 .8 6 45 49 *Lady fingers... Two... 27 .95 10 12 78 *Macaroons... Four... 23 .82 6 33 61 *Pie, apple............... . . One third piece 38 1.3 5 32 63 *Pie, cream............... . . One-fourth pc. . 30 1.1 5 32 63 *Pie,custard... . . One-third piece 55 1.9 9 32 59 *Pie,lemon... . . One-third piece 38 1.35 6 36 58 *Pie, mince............... . . One-fourth pc. . 35 1.2 8 38 54 *Pie, squash.............. . . One-third piece 55 1.9 10 42 48 Pudding,apple sago... .... 81 3.02 6 3 91 Pudding,brown betty... . Half ord. s'v'g . 56.6 2. 7 12 81 Pudding, cream rice...... . Very small s'v'g 75 2.65 8 13 79 Pudding, Indian meal..... . Half ord. ser'g.. 56.6 2. 12 25 63 Pudding, apple tapioca .... . Small serving . . 79 2.8 1 1 98 Tapioca, cooked........... Ord. serving .. . 108 3.85 1 1 98 SWEETS AND PICKLES *Catsup,tomato,av... ... 170 6. 10 3 87 Candy, plain............. ... 26 .9 0 0 100 Candy, chocolate ......... ... 30 1.1 1 4 95 *Honey.................. . Four teasp'ns. . 30 1.05 1 0 99 *Marmalade (orange)....... ... 28.3 1 5 2.5 97 *Molasses, cane............ ... 35 1.2 5 0 99.5 *Olives, green edible portion . .Five to seven. . 32 1.1 1 84 15 *01ives, ripe, edible portion . . . Five to seven . 38 1.3 2 91 7 *Pickels,mixed... 415 1 4.6 18 15 67 *Sugar, granulated......... Three heaping tsp or 1 1/2 lumps. 24 .86 0 0 100 *Sugar, maple............. . Four teaspoons 29 1.03 0 0 100 *Syrup, maple............. . Four teaspoons 35 1.2 0 0 100 NUTS, EDIBLE PORTION *Almonds, av.............. . Eight to 15..... 15 .53 13 77 10 *Beechnuts................ ... 14.8 .52 13 79 8 *Brazil Nuts,.............. . Three ord. size. 14 .49 10 86 4 *Butternuts............... .. 14 .50 16 82 2 *Coconuts... ... 16 .57 4 77 19 *Chestnuts,fresh,av... ... 40 1 .4 10 20 70 *Filberts,av... Ten nuts.. 14 .48 9 84 7 *hickory nuts... ... 13 47 9 85 6 *Peanuts,av... . Thirteen double 18 .62 20 63 17 *Pecans,polished... . About eight. .. . 13 .46 6 87 7 *Pine nuts,(pignolias)... About eighty.. . 16 56 22 74 4 *Walnuts, California........ About six... 14 .48 10 83 7
 Name of Food " Portion " Containing 100 Food Units (approx). Wt. of 100 Calories Per cent of Grams Oz. Proteid Fat Carbohydrate CEREALS *Bread, brown, average...... Ord. thick slice. 43 1.5 9 7 84 *Bread, corn (johnnyeake) av.. Small square. ... 38 1.3 12 16 72 *Bread, white, home made. . . Ord. thick slice 38 1.3 13 6 81 *Cookies,sugar... Two.......... 24 .83 7 22 71 Corn flakes,toasted... Ord. cer. dish f'l 27 .97 11 1 88 *Corn meal, granular, av...... 2 1/2 level tbsp. . 27 .96 10 5 85 Corn meal, unbolted, av...... Three tbsp..... 26 .92 9. 11. 80 *Crackers, graham........... Two crackers.. 23 .82 9.5 20 5 70 *Crackers, oatmeal.......... Two crackers.. 23 .81 11 24 65 *Crackers,soda... 3 1/2 "Uneedas" 24 .83 9.4 20 70.6 *Hominy,cooked... Large serving. . 120 4.2 11 2 87 *Macaroni, av.. .... 27 .96 15 2 83 *Macaroni,cooked... Ord. serving. . . 110 3.85 14 15 71 *Oatmeal,boiled... 1 1/2 serving.. .. 159 5.6 18 75 *Popcorn... .... 24 .86 11 11 78 *Rice ,cooked... ... 28 .98 9 1 90 *Rice, boiled... Ord. cereal dish 87 3.1 10 1 89 *Rice,flakes... Ord. cereal dish. 27 .94 8 1 91 *Rolls,Vienna,av... One large roll. . 35 1.2 12 7 81 *Shredded,wheat... One biscuit.. . . 27 .94 13 4.5 82.5 *Spaghetti,average... .... 28 .97 12 1 87 *Wafers,vanilla... Four.. 24 .84 8 13 71 *Wheat, flour, e't'e w'h't, av.. Four tbsp... 27 .96 15 5 80 *Wheat, flour, graham, av.. . 4 1/2tbsp...... 27 .96 15 5 80 *Wheat, flour, patent, family and straight grade spring wheat, av ....................... Four tbsp...... 27 .97 12 3 85 *Zweiback... Size of thick slice of bread ........ 23 .81 9 21 70 MISCELLANEOUS *Eggs, hen's boiled.......... One large egg.. 59 2.1 32 68 00 *Eggs,hen's white... Of six eggs.. 181 6.4 100 0 00 *Eggs, hen's yolks........... Two yolks..... 27 .94 17 83 00 *Omelat... ... 94 3.3 34 60 6 *Soup,beef,av... ... 380 13. 69 14 17 *Soup,bean,av.. Very large plate 150 5.4 20 20 DO *Soup, cream of celery....... Two plates..... 180 6.3 16 47 37 *Consomme... ... 830 29. 85 00 15 *Clam chowder... Two plates..... 230 8.25 17 18 65 *Chocolate,bitter... Half-a-square.. . 16 .56 8 72 20 *Cocoa... ... 20 .69 17 53 30 Ice cream (Phila)... Half serving.... 45 1.6 5 57 38 Ice Cream (New York)...... Half serving. . . . 48 1.7 7 47 40

*Chemical Composition of American Food Materials, Atwater and Bryant, U. S. Department of Agriculture Bull. No. 28. .

†Experiments on Losses in Cooking Meats. (1900-03), Gnndley, U. S. Department of Agriculture Bull. No. 141.

‡Laboratory number of specimen, as per Experiments on Losses in Cooking Meat.