Food Values In Calories Per Ounce

In some respects Dr. Kellogg's method of giving the composition of foods in food units (calories) per ounce is simpler and more useful in the actual calculation of dietaries. By having a table with composition in food units, the day's ration may be calculated by simple addition, combined with a little mental multiplication. If the results are wanted in ounces, the calories of proteid or carbohydrate are divided by 116, and calories of fat by 264. For grams, the factor is 4.1 for proteids and carbohydrate and 9.3 for fats.

Such a table is given in the Battle Creek Sanitarium Diet List which contains the composition of all foods served at that institution in calories per ounce. Dr. Fisher's method of serving the food in "standard portions" has been adopted and the figures by that method of calculation are also given in the last edition of the booklet.

The Diet List also contains tables giving normal height, weight, skin surface and calories required, on the average, for men and women, boys and girls, per day. Some of these tables are given in the following pages, also the calculation of a dietary with the figures in calories per ounce and one with food served in 100 calorie portions.

These tables are based on Professor Chittenden's standards and so are lower in proteid requirements and total food value than the Atwater standard dietaries. For example, the diet for an average man, 5 feet 8 inches tall and weighing 157 pounds, is given as 236 calories of proteid, 708 calories of fat, 1,416 calories of carbohydrates, with a total of 2,360 calories per day.

The Atwater standard for man with light exercise is 100 grams of proteid, 100 grams of fat, 360 grams of carbohydrate, or on a calorie basis: 410 calories of proteid, 930 calories of fat, 1,476 calories of carbohydrate, total 2,816 calories or nearly 20 per cent higher in total food value.

Under the Chittenden standard, of every 100 food units about 10 should be proteid, 30 fat and 60 carbohydrate. Based on the Atwater standard, of 100 food units, about 14 are proteid, 32 fat, and 52 carbohydrate.

It must be remembered that no one in formulating a "standard diet" attempts to give anything more than a possible average, from which to vary, according to conditions. It is recognized that health may be maintained on various proportions of proteid and that the ratio of fat to carbohydrates is immaterial, provided digestion remains perfect.

The following table has been taken from some of the figures in the Diet List. The figures based on standard portions are omitted.

Note - Members of the School are expected hereafter to solve question No. 21, Part I, Food and Dietetics - "Calculate the amount of proteid, carbondrate and fat in your own diet for one day," in the usual way, as shown on page 193, and by the "calories per ounce" method, using the following figures. The total calories should be found by each method. The two figures will not come out exactly the same, but should be approximate.

Also plot one of these meals on the enlarged "Food Map" on page 223. Find the "center of gravity" by the method shown in Figs. 9 and 10. This is most easily done by marking and folding a strip of paper to find halves, thirds, etc. Say what the resulting point represents in terms of calories and of ounces of proteids, fats and carbohydrates. Give full details.

These "Food Maps" may be obtained of the School in quantity, printed on good paper - 25 for 10 cents, 100 for 30 cents (in stamps).

Food Values In Food Units Per Ounce

Proteid

Calories Per Ounce

Fat

Carbohydrate

Total

Apples,baked...

.6

1.3

28.4

30.3

Apples,fresh...

. 2.75

7.15

91.3

101.1

Apple sauce...

.3

.8

20.6

21.7

Apricots....

1.3

0

15.6

16.9

Asparagus in cream......................

. 2.8

17

4.9

24.7

Bananas................................

1.5

1.6

25.7

28.8

Barley,pearl...

2.97

.87

27.24

31.08

Beans, string, (cooked)...................

.9

2.9

2.2

6

Beets,(cooked)...

2.7

.3

8.6

11.6

Biscuit,cream...

. 10.3

27.5

49.6

87.5

Blanc Mange,Farina...

4.16

21.56

18.6

44.4

Bread, corn.............................

. 8.5

12.3

52

72.8

Bread,graham...

. 10.4

4.8

60.8

76

Bread,rye...

. 10.5

1.6

62.1

74.2

Bread, white............................

9.3

3.7

63.4

76.4

Bread,whole wheat...

. 11.3

2.4

58

71.7

Buns...

7.3

17.3

66.8

91.4

Butter, (dairy)...........................

1.2

226.6

0

227.8

Buttermilk..............................

3.5

1.3

5.6

10.4

Cake ,frosted...

. 6.8

24

74.9

105.7

Cake,layer...

. 8.2

45.1

76.5

130.6

Cake,sponge...

. 12.4

14.2

94.2

120.8

Candy, (Sanitas chocolates)...............

1

3.8

85.2

90

Canteloupe...

.7

10.9

11.6

Carrots,creamed...

2.01

7.5

10.3

19.8

Cashew nuts....

. 28.87

125.7

28.24

182.81

Celery..................................

1.3

.3

3.9

5.5

Cheese,cottage...

. 19.9

12.4

5.1

37.3

Crackers, graham.........................

. 11.7

25.1

86.1

122.9

Crackers,oatmeal...

. 13.3

29.6

80.5

123.8

Cream...

. 2.9

49.3

5.3

57.5

Cream sauce...

3.7

22.9

9

35.6

Custard,caramel...

5.2

11.4

23.6

40.2

Custard,plain...

. 5.7

13

12.5

31.2

Dates...

2.5

7.5

91.5

101.5

Eggs,poached,etc...

16.3

32

48.3

Eggs(each,whole,a'v'g)...

. 26.3

41.9

68.2

Egg (white)each...

. 15.5

.6

16.1

Eggs (yolk) each...

10.8

41.3

52.1

Figs...

.5

8

86.6

92.4

Grape fruit...

.9

.5

11.8

13.2

Grapes...

1.16

3.2

16.6

20.9

Gruel,barley...

1.48

.7

10.2

12.39

Gruel,oatmeal...

1.3

1.4

5.8

8.5

Honey...

.5

94.7

95.2

Macaroni and tomato...

5

3.86

17.16

26

Maple syrup...

83

83

Mayonnaise,cooked...

6.87

S7.1

2.85

76.8

Proteid

Calories Per Ounce

Fat

Carbohydrate

Total

Milk skimmed...

4

.8

6

10.8

Milk,whole...

3.8

11

5.8

20.6

Nut butter...............................

34.2

124

20

178.2

Nuts,almonds...

24.5

146.4

20.2

101.1

Nuts,Brazil...

19.8

178.1

8.2

206.1

Nuts,Filberts...

18.2

174.1

15.2

207.5

Nuts,Pecans...

11.2

188

17.8

217.8

Nuts,walnuts,Eng...

19.4

169.2

18.2

206.8

Oats, rolled (cooked)......................

3.3

1.3

13.4

18

Olive oil...

0

264.1

0

264.1

Olives,ripe(7)...

2

69.1

5

76.1

Onions, boiled.............................

1.13

4.29

5.1

10.52

Oranges...

.9

.5

13.5

14.9

Parsnips,creamed...

2.56

6.5

17.29

26.35

Peanuts...

30.1

102.9

8.5

161.5

Pears...

.7

1.3

16.5

18.5

Peas,green...

7.8

9.1

17.5

34.4

Pie,apple...

7.5

18

37.2 .

62.7

Pie,custard...

4.9

16.8

30.5

52.2

Pie,squash...

4.27

22.7

36.5

63.5

Potatoes,baked...

3.4

.4

28.9

32.7

Potatoes,boiled...

2.9

.3

24.4

27.6

Potatoes,mashed...

3

8

20.8

31.8

Potatoes, sweet, browned...................

4.11

11.25

59.7

75

Prunes(cooked)...

.8

.3

26.4

27.5

Pudding,baked Indian...

4.8

21.8

20

46.6

Pudding, bread custard....................

6.44

32

19.12

37.56

Pudding, snow............................

4.78

9.22

16.37

30.38

Pudding,apple tapioca...

4.5

17.58

26.44

48.5

Raisins...

. 3

8.8

88.8

100.6

Rice,boiled...

3.3

.3

28.5

32.1

Salad,apple and celery...

2.26

4.27

26.16

32.7

Salad, egg mayonnaise.....................

13.37

30.66

1.46

44.5

Salad,potato...

4.56

25.77

15.06

45.39

Sandwich,cottage cheese...

11.2

33.9

37.6

82.8

Soup, cream of celery...

2.8

19

4.7

26.5

Soup,cream of potato...

2.7

19.2

.9

30.9

Soup,split,pea..

7.18

1.85

18.07

27.1

Soup,tomato bisque...

3.1

10.5

2.4

16

Soup,vegetable...

.96

5.71

6.9

13.5

Spinach...

3.3

1

4.93

9.3

Squash,staemed or canned...

1

1.3

12.3

14.6

Sugar (granulated)...

0

0

116.6

116.6

Toast,breakfast...

11.4

27.5

86.2

125.15

Toasted,cream...

4.15

29.9

13.6

47.6

Tomatoes,stewed or canned...

1.4

.5

4.7

6.6

Wheat flakes,toasted...

11

3.9

88.9

103.8

Zwieback....

11.4

26.4

85.8

123.6

Proteid

Calories Per Ounce

Fat

Carbohydrate

Total

FLESH FOODS

Beef,roasted (flat)...

18.14

136.85

0

155.26

Beef,round(boiled,lean)...

40.9

4.54

0

45.6

Bouillon...

2.3

.3

3

3

Chicken (broilors)...

24.6

6.56

0

31.16

Cod fish...

19.3

1.02

0

20.32

Goose...

18.1

95.4

0

113.5

Halibut(steak)...

21.78

13.9

0

35.68

Lamb chops(boiled)...

25.3

79.7

0

105

Lamb (leg,roast)...

22.2

33.3

0

55.5

Liver(veal)...

21.78

13.9

0

35.68

Lobsters...

19

4.8

0

23.82

Mutton (leg,boiled)...

29.1

54.1

0

83.2

Oysters...

7.2

3.23

0

10.43

Pork (bacon, smoked medium fat)...........

11.3

177.3

0

188.6

Pork(ham,boiled)...

25.4

65.4

0

90.3

Pork(loin,chops)...

18.5

84.5

0

103

Salmon(California)...

20.4

46.6

0

66.6

Shad....................................

21.9

25.71

0

47.61

Trout(brook)...

22.2

55.5

0

77.7

Turkey...

24.1

59.1

0

83.2

Veal(leg,boiled)....

30.4

11.2

0

41.6

UNCOOKED FOODSTUFFS.

Barley,pearled...

9.9

2.9

90.8

103.6

Beans(dried)...

26.3

4.8

69.5

100.6

Cocoa...

25.2

77.1

44.0

146.3

Corn,green...

3.6

2.9

23.0

29.5

Cornmeal...

10.7

5.1

87.9

103. 7

Cornstarch...

105.0

105.0

Flour,graham..

15.5

5.9

83.3

104.7

Flour,rye...

7.9

2.4

91.8

102.1

Flour,wheat (entire wheat)...

16.1

5.1

83.8

105.0

Flour,wheat (patent)...

12.6

2.9

87.7

103.2

Lemon juice...

0

0

11.4

11.4

Macaroni...

3.5

4.0

18.4

25.9

Oatmeal...

18.8

19.2

78.8

116.8

Oats,rolled...

19.5

19.5

77.2

116.2

Peas (dried)...

28.7

2.7

72.3

100.7

Peas,green...

8.2

1.3

19.7

29.2

Potatoes...

2.6

.3

21.5

24.4

Rice...

9.0

.8

92.0

101.8

Sweet potatoes...

2.1

1.9

32.0

36.0

Wheat,cracked...

13.0

4.3

88.1

106.6

Tables Showing Average Height, Weight, Skin Surface And Fooa Units Required Daily With Very Light Exercise. Boys

Age

Height in Inches

Weight in founds

Surface in Square Feet

Calories or

Food-units

5

41.57

41.09

7.9

816.2

6

43.75

45.17

8.:3

855.9

7

45. 74

49.07

8.8

912.4

8

47.76

53.92

9.4

981.1

9

49.69

59.23

9.9

1,043.7

10

51.58

65.30

10.5

1,117.5

11

53.33

70.18

11.0

1,178.2

12

55.11

76.92

11.6

1,254.8

13

57.21

84.85

12.4

1,352.6

14

59.88

94.91

13.4

1.471.3

Girls

Age

Height in Inches

Weight in founds

Surface in Square Feet

Calories or Food Units

5

41.29

39.66

7.7

7S4.5

6

43.35

43.28

8.1

831.9

7

45.52

47.46

8.5

881.7

8

47.58

52.04

9.2

957.1

9

49.37

57.07

9.7

1,018.5

10

51.34

62.35

10.2

1,081.0

11

53.42

68.84

10.7

1,148.5

12

55.88

78.31

11.8

1.276.8

Men

Height in In.

Weight in Pounds

Surface in Square Ft.

Proteids

Calories or Fond Units

Total

Fats

Carbohydrates

61

131

15.92

197

591

1,182

1,970

62

133

16.06

200

000

1,200

2,000

63

136

16.27

204

612

1,224

2,040

64

140

16.55

210

630

1,260

2,100

65

143

16.76

215

645

1.290

2.150

66

147

17.06

221

663

1.326

2,210

67

152

17.40

228

684

1.368

2.280

68

157

17.76

236

708

1.416

2.360

69

162

18.12

. 243

729

1.458

2,430

70

167

18.48

251

753

1.506

2.510

71

173

18.91

260

780

1,560

2,600

72

179

19.34

269

807

1,614

2,690

73

185

19.89

278

834

1,668

2,780

74

192

20.33

288

864

1,728

2,880

75

200

20.88

300

900

1,800

3.000

Women

Height in In.

Weight in Pounds

Surface in Square Ft.

Proteids

Calories or Food Units

Total

Fats

Carbohydrates

59

119

14.82

179

537

1,074

1,790

60

122

15.03

183

549

1,098

1,830

61

124

15 29

186

558

1,116

1.860

62

127

15.50

191

573

1.146

1,910

63

131

15.92

197

591

1.182

1.970

64

134

16.13

201

603

1,206

2.010

65

139

16.48

209

627

1.254

2,090

66

143

16.76r

215

645

1,290

2.150

67

147

17.06

221

663

1,326

2.210

68

151

17.34

227

681

1,362

2.270

69

155

17.64

232

696

1,392

2.320

70

159

17.92

239

717

1,434

2,390

Note - With active exercise an increase of about 20 per cent total food units may be needed.

Dietary Calculation With Food Values In Calories Per Ounce

Breakfast

Proteids

Fats

Carbohydrates

Total

4.7

.2

6.0

Gluten Gruel 5 oz.

23.5

1.0

30.0

(each)

26.3

41.9

Soft-Boiled Egg

26.3

41.9

86.2

Malt Honey 1 oz.

86.2

3.0

8.0

. 20.8

Creamed Potatoes 5 oz.

15.0

40.0

104.0

11.4

26.4

85.8

Zwieback 2 oz.

22.8

52.8

171.6

11.2

188.0

17.8

Pecans 3/4 oz.

8.4

141.0

13.4

.5

1.3

16.6

Apple 5 oz.

2.5

6.5

83.0

98.5

283.2

488.2

869.9

Dietary Calculation With Food Served In 100 Calories Portions

Dinner

Portions in serving

Proteins

Fats

Carbohydrates

Total

French Soup

1/2

10

20

20

Nut Sauce

1

29

55

16

Macaroni, Egg

1

15

59

26

Baked Potato

2

22

2

176

Cream Gravy

1/2

5

33

12

Biscuit

1 1/2

20

2

128

Butter

l

1

99

Honey

2

200

Celery

1/4

4

21

Apple Juice

1/2

50

10 1/4

106

270

649

1,025

Hourly Outgo In Heat And Energy From The Human Body As Determined In The Respiration Calorimeter By The U. S. Dept. Of Agriculture

Average (154 lbs).

Calories

Man at rest (asleep)...

.. 65

Sitting up (awake)..

..100

Light exercise...

..170

Moderate exercise...

..190

Severe exercise....

.. .450

Very severe exercise...

. . .600

DR. FISHER's FOOD MAP Normal Rectangle for a Balanced Diet, Chittenden's Standard.

DR. FISHER's FOOD MAP Normal Rectangle for a Balanced Diet, Chittenden's Standard.