## Food Values In Calories Per Ounce

In some respects Dr. Kellogg's method of giving the composition of foods in food units (calories) per ounce is simpler and more useful in the actual calculation of dietaries. By having a table with composition in food units, the day's ration may be calculated by simple addition, combined with a little mental multiplication. If the results are wanted in ounces, the calories of proteid or carbohydrate are divided by 116, and calories of fat by 264. For grams, the factor is 4.1 for proteids and carbohydrate and 9.3 for fats.

Such a table is given in the Battle Creek Sanitarium Diet List which contains the composition of all foods served at that institution in calories per ounce. Dr. Fisher's method of serving the food in "standard portions" has been adopted and the figures by that method of calculation are also given in the last edition of the booklet.

The Diet List also contains tables giving normal height, weight, skin surface and calories required, on the average, for men and women, boys and girls, per day. Some of these tables are given in the following pages, also the calculation of a dietary with the figures in calories per ounce and one with food served in 100 calorie portions.

These tables are based on Professor Chittenden's standards and so are lower in proteid requirements and total food value than the Atwater standard dietaries. For example, the diet for an average man, 5 feet 8 inches tall and weighing 157 pounds, is given as 236 calories of proteid, 708 calories of fat, 1,416 calories of carbohydrates, with a total of 2,360 calories per day.

The Atwater standard for man with light exercise is 100 grams of proteid, 100 grams of fat, 360 grams of carbohydrate, or on a calorie basis: 410 calories of proteid, 930 calories of fat, 1,476 calories of carbohydrate, total 2,816 calories or nearly 20 per cent higher in total food value.

Under the Chittenden standard, of every 100 food units about 10 should be proteid, 30 fat and 60 carbohydrate. Based on the Atwater standard, of 100 food units, about 14 are proteid, 32 fat, and 52 carbohydrate.

It must be remembered that no one in formulating a "standard diet" attempts to give anything more than a possible average, from which to vary, according to conditions. It is recognized that health may be maintained on various proportions of proteid and that the ratio of fat to carbohydrates is immaterial, provided digestion remains perfect.

The following table has been taken from some of the figures in the Diet List. The figures based on standard portions are omitted.

Note - Members of the School are expected hereafter to solve question No. 21, Part I, Food and Dietetics - "Calculate the amount of proteid, carbondrate and fat in your own diet for one day," in the usual way, as shown on page 193, and by the "calories per ounce" method, using the following figures. The total calories should be found by each method. The two figures will not come out exactly the same, but should be approximate.

Also plot one of these meals on the enlarged "Food Map" on page 223. Find the "center of gravity" by the method shown in Figs. 9 and 10. This is most easily done by marking and folding a strip of paper to find halves, thirds, etc. Say what the resulting point represents in terms of calories and of ounces of proteids, fats and carbohydrates. Give full details.

These "Food Maps" may be obtained of the School in quantity, printed on good paper - 25 for 10 cents, 100 for 30 cents (in stamps).

### Food Values In Food Units Per Ounce

 Proteid Calories Per Ounce Fat Carbohydrate Total Apples,baked... .6 1.3 28.4 30.3 Apples,fresh... . 2.75 7.15 91.3 101.1 Apple sauce... .3 .8 20.6 21.7 Apricots.... 1.3 0 15.6 16.9 Asparagus in cream...................... . 2.8 17 4.9 24.7 Bananas................................ 1.5 1.6 25.7 28.8 Barley,pearl... 2.97 .87 27.24 31.08 Beans, string, (cooked)................... .9 2.9 2.2 6 Beets,(cooked)... 2.7 .3 8.6 11.6 Biscuit,cream... . 10.3 27.5 49.6 87.5 Blanc Mange,Farina... 4.16 21.56 18.6 44.4 Bread, corn............................. . 8.5 12.3 52 72.8 Bread,graham... . 10.4 4.8 60.8 76 Bread,rye... . 10.5 1.6 62.1 74.2 Bread, white............................ 9.3 3.7 63.4 76.4 Bread,whole wheat... . 11.3 2.4 58 71.7 Buns... 7.3 17.3 66.8 91.4 Butter, (dairy)........................... 1.2 226.6 0 227.8 Buttermilk.............................. 3.5 1.3 5.6 10.4 Cake ,frosted... . 6.8 24 74.9 105.7 Cake,layer... . 8.2 45.1 76.5 130.6 Cake,sponge... . 12.4 14.2 94.2 120.8 Candy, (Sanitas chocolates)............... 1 3.8 85.2 90 Canteloupe... .7 10.9 11.6 Carrots,creamed... 2.01 7.5 10.3 19.8 Cashew nuts.... . 28.87 125.7 28.24 182.81 Celery.................................. 1.3 .3 3.9 5.5 Cheese,cottage... . 19.9 12.4 5.1 37.3 Crackers, graham......................... . 11.7 25.1 86.1 122.9 Crackers,oatmeal... . 13.3 29.6 80.5 123.8 Cream... . 2.9 49.3 5.3 57.5 Cream sauce... 3.7 22.9 9 35.6 Custard,caramel... 5.2 11.4 23.6 40.2 Custard,plain... . 5.7 13 12.5 31.2 Dates... 2.5 7.5 91.5 101.5 Eggs,poached,etc... 16.3 32 48.3 Eggs(each,whole,a'v'g)... . 26.3 41.9 68.2 Egg (white)each... . 15.5 .6 16.1 Eggs (yolk) each... 10.8 41.3 52.1 Figs... .5 8 86.6 92.4 Grape fruit... .9 .5 11.8 13.2 Grapes... 1.16 3.2 16.6 20.9 Gruel,barley... 1.48 .7 10.2 12.39 Gruel,oatmeal... 1.3 1.4 5.8 8.5 Honey... .5 94.7 95.2 Macaroni and tomato... 5 3.86 17.16 26 Maple syrup... 83 83 Mayonnaise,cooked... 6.87 S7.1 2.85 76.8
 Proteid Calories Per Ounce Fat Carbohydrate Total Milk skimmed... 4 .8 6 10.8 Milk,whole... 3.8 11 5.8 20.6 Nut butter............................... 34.2 124 20 178.2 Nuts,almonds... 24.5 146.4 20.2 101.1 Nuts,Brazil... 19.8 178.1 8.2 206.1 Nuts,Filberts... 18.2 174.1 15.2 207.5 Nuts,Pecans... 11.2 188 17.8 217.8 Nuts,walnuts,Eng... 19.4 169.2 18.2 206.8 Oats, rolled (cooked)...................... 3.3 1.3 13.4 18 Olive oil... 0 264.1 0 264.1 Olives,ripe(7)... 2 69.1 5 76.1 Onions, boiled............................. 1.13 4.29 5.1 10.52 Oranges... .9 .5 13.5 14.9 Parsnips,creamed... 2.56 6.5 17.29 26.35 Peanuts... 30.1 102.9 8.5 161.5 Pears... .7 1.3 16.5 18.5 Peas,green... 7.8 9.1 17.5 34.4 Pie,apple... 7.5 18 37.2 . 62.7 Pie,custard... 4.9 16.8 30.5 52.2 Pie,squash... 4.27 22.7 36.5 63.5 Potatoes,baked... 3.4 .4 28.9 32.7 Potatoes,boiled... 2.9 .3 24.4 27.6 Potatoes,mashed... 3 8 20.8 31.8 Potatoes, sweet, browned................... 4.11 11.25 59.7 75 Prunes(cooked)... .8 .3 26.4 27.5 Pudding,baked Indian... 4.8 21.8 20 46.6 Pudding, bread custard.................... 6.44 32 19.12 37.56 Pudding, snow............................ 4.78 9.22 16.37 30.38 Pudding,apple tapioca... 4.5 17.58 26.44 48.5 Raisins... . 3 8.8 88.8 100.6 Rice,boiled... 3.3 .3 28.5 32.1 Salad,apple and celery... 2.26 4.27 26.16 32.7 Salad, egg mayonnaise..................... 13.37 30.66 1.46 44.5 Salad,potato... 4.56 25.77 15.06 45.39 Sandwich,cottage cheese... 11.2 33.9 37.6 82.8 Soup, cream of celery... 2.8 19 4.7 26.5 Soup,cream of potato... 2.7 19.2 .9 30.9 Soup,split,pea.. 7.18 1.85 18.07 27.1 Soup,tomato bisque... 3.1 10.5 2.4 16 Soup,vegetable... .96 5.71 6.9 13.5 Spinach... 3.3 1 4.93 9.3 Squash,staemed or canned... 1 1.3 12.3 14.6 Sugar (granulated)... 0 0 116.6 116.6 Toast,breakfast... 11.4 27.5 86.2 125.15 Toasted,cream... 4.15 29.9 13.6 47.6 Tomatoes,stewed or canned... 1.4 .5 4.7 6.6 Wheat flakes,toasted... 11 3.9 88.9 103.8 Zwieback.... 11.4 26.4 85.8 123.6
 Proteid Calories Per Ounce Fat Carbohydrate Total FLESH FOODS Beef,roasted (flat)... 18.14 136.85 0 155.26 Beef,round(boiled,lean)... 40.9 4.54 0 45.6 Bouillon... 2.3 .3 3 3 Chicken (broilors)... 24.6 6.56 0 31.16 Cod fish... 19.3 1.02 0 20.32 Goose... 18.1 95.4 0 113.5 Halibut(steak)... 21.78 13.9 0 35.68 Lamb chops(boiled)... 25.3 79.7 0 105 Lamb (leg,roast)... 22.2 33.3 0 55.5 Liver(veal)... 21.78 13.9 0 35.68 Lobsters... 19 4.8 0 23.82 Mutton (leg,boiled)... 29.1 54.1 0 83.2 Oysters... 7.2 3.23 0 10.43 Pork (bacon, smoked medium fat)........... 11.3 177.3 0 188.6 Pork(ham,boiled)... 25.4 65.4 0 90.3 Pork(loin,chops)... 18.5 84.5 0 103 Salmon(California)... 20.4 46.6 0 66.6 Shad.................................... 21.9 25.71 0 47.61 Trout(brook)... 22.2 55.5 0 77.7 Turkey... 24.1 59.1 0 83.2 Veal(leg,boiled).... 30.4 11.2 0 41.6 UNCOOKED FOODSTUFFS. Barley,pearled... 9.9 2.9 90.8 103.6 Beans(dried)... 26.3 4.8 69.5 100.6 Cocoa... 25.2 77.1 44.0 146.3 Corn,green... 3.6 2.9 23.0 29.5 Cornmeal... 10.7 5.1 87.9 103. 7 Cornstarch... 105.0 105.0 Flour,graham.. 15.5 5.9 83.3 104.7 Flour,rye... 7.9 2.4 91.8 102.1 Flour,wheat (entire wheat)... 16.1 5.1 83.8 105.0 Flour,wheat (patent)... 12.6 2.9 87.7 103.2 Lemon juice... 0 0 11.4 11.4 Macaroni... 3.5 4.0 18.4 25.9 Oatmeal... 18.8 19.2 78.8 116.8 Oats,rolled... 19.5 19.5 77.2 116.2 Peas (dried)... 28.7 2.7 72.3 100.7 Peas,green... 8.2 1.3 19.7 29.2 Potatoes... 2.6 .3 21.5 24.4 Rice... 9.0 .8 92.0 101.8 Sweet potatoes... 2.1 1.9 32.0 36.0 Wheat,cracked... 13.0 4.3 88.1 106.6

### Tables Showing Average Height, Weight, Skin Surface And Fooa Units Required Daily With Very Light Exercise. Boys

 Age Height in Inches Weight in founds Surface in Square Feet Calories orFood-units 5 41.57 41.09 7.9 816.2 6 43.75 45.17 8.:3 855.9 7 45. 74 49.07 8.8 912.4 8 47.76 53.92 9.4 981.1 9 49.69 59.23 9.9 1,043.7 10 51.58 65.30 10.5 1,117.5 11 53.33 70.18 11.0 1,178.2 12 55.11 76.92 11.6 1,254.8 13 57.21 84.85 12.4 1,352.6 14 59.88 94.91 13.4 1.471.3

### Girls

 Age Height in Inches Weight in founds Surface in Square Feet Calories or Food Units 5 41.29 39.66 7.7 7S4.5 6 43.35 43.28 8.1 831.9 7 45.52 47.46 8.5 881.7 8 47.58 52.04 9.2 957.1 9 49.37 57.07 9.7 1,018.5 10 51.34 62.35 10.2 1,081.0 11 53.42 68.84 10.7 1,148.5 12 55.88 78.31 11.8 1.276.8

### Men

 Height in In. Weight in Pounds Surface in Square Ft. Proteids Calories or Fond Units Total Fats Carbohydrates 61 131 15.92 197 591 1,182 1,970 62 133 16.06 200 000 1,200 2,000 63 136 16.27 204 612 1,224 2,040 64 140 16.55 210 630 1,260 2,100 65 143 16.76 215 645 1.290 2.150 66 147 17.06 221 663 1.326 2,210 67 152 17.40 228 684 1.368 2.280 68 157 17.76 236 708 1.416 2.360 69 162 18.12 . 243 729 1.458 2,430 70 167 18.48 251 753 1.506 2.510 71 173 18.91 260 780 1,560 2,600 72 179 19.34 269 807 1,614 2,690 73 185 19.89 278 834 1,668 2,780 74 192 20.33 288 864 1,728 2,880 75 200 20.88 300 900 1,800 3.000

### Women

 Height in In. Weight in Pounds Surface in Square Ft. Proteids Calories or Food Units Total Fats Carbohydrates 59 119 14.82 179 537 1,074 1,790 60 122 15.03 183 549 1,098 1,830 61 124 15 29 186 558 1,116 1.860 62 127 15.50 191 573 1.146 1,910 63 131 15.92 197 591 1.182 1.970 64 134 16.13 201 603 1,206 2.010 65 139 16.48 209 627 1.254 2,090 66 143 16.76r 215 645 1,290 2.150 67 147 17.06 221 663 1,326 2.210 68 151 17.34 227 681 1,362 2.270 69 155 17.64 232 696 1,392 2.320 70 159 17.92 239 717 1,434 2,390

Note - With active exercise an increase of about 20 per cent total food units may be needed.

### Dietary Calculation With Food Values In Calories Per Ounce

 Breakfast Proteids Fats Carbohydrates Total 4.7 .2 6.0 Gluten Gruel 5 oz. 23.5 1.0 30.0 (each) 26.3 41.9 Soft-Boiled Egg 26.3 41.9 86.2 Malt Honey 1 oz. 86.2 3.0 8.0 . 20.8 Creamed Potatoes 5 oz. 15.0 40.0 104.0 11.4 26.4 85.8 Zwieback 2 oz. 22.8 52.8 171.6 11.2 188.0 17.8 Pecans 3/4 oz. 8.4 141.0 13.4 .5 1.3 16.6 Apple 5 oz. 2.5 6.5 83.0 98.5 283.2 488.2 869.9

### Dietary Calculation With Food Served In 100 Calories Portions

 Dinner Portions in serving Proteins Fats Carbohydrates Total French Soup 1/2 10 20 20 Nut Sauce 1 29 55 16 Macaroni, Egg 1 15 59 26 Baked Potato 2 22 2 176 Cream Gravy 1/2 5 33 12 Biscuit 1 1/2 20 2 128 Butter l 1 99 Honey 2 200 Celery 1/4 4 21 Apple Juice 1/2 50 10 1/4 106 270 649 1,025

### Hourly Outgo In Heat And Energy From The Human Body As Determined In The Respiration Calorimeter By The U. S. Dept. Of Agriculture

 Average (154 lbs). Calories Man at rest (asleep)... .. 65 Sitting up (awake).. ..100 Light exercise... ..170 Moderate exercise... ..190 Severe exercise.... .. .450 Very severe exercise... . . .600

DR. FISHER's FOOD MAP Normal Rectangle for a Balanced Diet, Chittenden's Standard.