books

previous page: The Relation Of Food To Health And Premature Death | Geo. H. Townsend, Felix J. Levy, Geo. Clinton Crandall
  
page up: Diet and Nutrition Books
  
next page: Fletcherism. What It Is, Or How I Became Young At Sixty | by Horace Fletcher

Vital Factors Of Foods - Vitamins And Nutrition | Carleton Ellis, Annie Louise Macleod



Investigations made during the past decade have brought forth a discovery of the utmost importance to the well-being of mankind. And the discovery is this: In the foods we eat or should eat there are present very small amounts of certain life-giving and disease-preventing bodies, the consumption of which is essential to growth and good health. Such bodies are called vitamins. Before the day when the import of vitamins came to be recognized we were well satisfied to believe that an adequate supply of protein, fat, carbohydrate, mineral salts and water met our food requirements fully. Food charts were widely disseminated which made it apparent that the heat units of food, the " calories " available, were the essential factors in the control of a diet or ration. Women's clubs and other organisations were addressed on this score so often and emphatically that many a conscientious housewife kept scales in the kitchen to weigh protein, fat and carbohydrates and thereby compute the daily distribution and consumption of calories...

TitleVital Factors Of Foods - Vitamins And Nutrition
AuthorCarleton Ellis, Annie Louise Macleod
PublisherD. Van Nostrand Company
Year1922
Copyright1922, D. Van Nostrand Company
AmazonVital Factors Of Foods: Vitamins And Nutrition

By Carleton Ellis, S.B.; F.C.S, Consulting Chemist, Author OF "Hydrogenation of Oils. Catalyzers and Catalysis, and the Generation of Hydrogen and Oxygen," Co-author "Gasoline and Other Motor Fuels," Ultraviolst Light, Its Applicatiomh IN, Chemical Arts".

and Annie Louise Macleod, Ph.D., Associate Profrssor Of Chemistry, Vassas College

Illustrated

"All one's work might have been better done; but this is the sort of reflection a worker must put aside courageously, if he doesn't mean every one of his conceptions to remain forever a private vision, an 'evanescent reverie'." - Joseph Conrad in Notes on My Books.

-Preface
Investigations made during the past decade have brought forth a discovery of the utmost importance to the well-being of mankind. And the discovery is this: In the foods we eat or should eat there are ...
-Introduction. Elementary Principles Of Nutrition
The analogy between the animal body and a machine has been pointed out so often that it is almost a platitude, nevertheless it is particularly apt. Like a machine, the body must be provided with fuel,...
-Chapter I. Vitamins, What They Are And What They Do
The problem of adequate and economical nutrition - admittedly a problem of primary importance to mankind in general - may perhaps be said to have developed into an experimental science at the beginnin...
-Vitamins, What They Are And What They Do. Continued
Since the term amine has a certain definite significance in organic chemistry, which is not intended to apply in vitamine, Hopkins has suggested the term accessory food substances instead, a usage w...
-History of Vitamins
As indicated in the foregoing, the discovery of vitamins as essentials in the diet of animals followed from attempts to maintain animals on restricted diets of synthetic food mixtures. Lunin,4 in 1...
-History of Vitamins. Part 2
In 1909 Stepp13 began a series of experiments to determine whether animals are dependent on their food supply for lipoids or can furnish them by synthesis. He fed materials! extracted with ether and a...
-History of Vitamins. Part 3
This was disputed by Hopkins and Neville17 who reported that when rats were fed on the experimental ration of Osborne and Mendel, composed of very carefully purified substances they were unable to obt...
-History of Vitamins. Part 4
Considerable uncertainty existed at this time as to whether the growth-promoting substance was to be regarded as identical with antineuritic and antiscorbutic factors. Stepp26 expressed the belief tha...
-Chapter II. Experimental Methods
The preceding chapter explains how it was that so important a factor in nutrition as the vitamins are now believed to be, could have escaped recognition for so long a time, and follows in some detail ...
-Experimental Methods. Part 2
Hart, Halpin and McCollum10 found a striking difference in the mineral requirements at least and possibly in other nutritive needs of chickens as compared with mammals. In this connection they remark ...
-Experimental Methods. Part 3
His experiments were all concerned with young rats at a stage when rapid growth is normal. Their initial weight was mostly from 36 to 50 grams, a stage when weight is normally doubled on an efficient ...
-Experimental Methods. Part 4
Although the experimental methods above described were developed for use with rats only they will serve to indicate the important points to be observed in the case of animals in general.19 Certain ...
-Experimental Methods. Part 5
The necessity of long continued experiments calls for particular emphasis. Physiological alterations dependent upon the gradual depletion of a small store of essential tissue material may manifest th...
-Experimental Methods. Part 6
On the other hand the does showed much greater irregularity. Eight animals, or 32 per cent, grew at about the same rate as the bucks; completing their weight doubling between the 13th and the 16th day...
-Experimental Methods. Part 7
Complication may be introduced through the presence of a toxic substance in the food, in which case, according to Hart, Miller and McCollum43 an additional supply of the essential factors will be requ...
-Experimental Methods. Part 8
Chick and Hume52 criticize most of the research on vitamins on the ground that the consideration of quantity has been overlooked to a large extent in the experimental methods adopted, and that the con...
-Experimental Methods. Part 9
As Williams himself points out the method is far from ideal for general use since some practice is necessary before it can be applied with any confidence, and a personal factor is introduced to quite ...
-Experimental Methods. Part 10
A pair of capillary pipettes is made and calibrated to hold one unit, the unit being arbitrarily chosen, in this case a drop of mercury weighing 0.0108 g. After sterilization these tubes are ready for...
-Experimental Methods. Part 11
A set of experiments was made with wheat germ extract treated with 2-4 per cent of sodium bicarbonate and autoclaved, in order to destroy as much as possible of the antineuritic substance. Addition of...
-Experimental Methods. Part 12
In this connection the experiments of Schweizer70 are interesting. The action of various fractions of autolysed yeast upon living yeast suspended in pure sucrose solution was measured by the amount of...
-Chapter III. Dietary Factors Other Than Vitamins
It is a self-evident fact that conclusions concerning any one factor in a diet will be reliable only if the ration fed is entirely satisfactory in every respect save the particular factor under invest...
-Dietary Factors Other Than Vitamins. Part 2
McCollum, Simmonds, and Pitz7 investigated the nutritive value of the wheat embryo (commercial preparation) and concluded that it contains qualitatively all the factors essential for the promotion of ...
-Dietary Factors Other Than Vitamins. Part 3
In order to ascertain the biological value of mixtures of cereal and legume seeds, McCollum and Simmonds18 experimented with mixtures of maize and beans as a diet for rats. The mixture, as was to be e...
-Dietary Factors Other Than Vitamins. Part 4
A study of the dietary properties of tubers, as represented by the potato, showed27 that dietary props of potato closely resemble those of cereal grains. The first limiting factor for growth is a rela...
-Dietary Factors Other Than Vitamins. Part 5
An attempt to determine the relative values of the proteins in the various cereal grains proved difficult. The general conclusion was drawn that the total proteins of rice and barley, in contrast to t...
-Dietary Factors Other Than Vitamins. Part 6
The method adopted was the following: Casein purified by twice repeated precipitation was washed, dried, and ground. It was then placed in a large jar having an outlet at the bottom which was closed w...
-Mineral Salts
It has been frequently demonstrated that it is impossible to secure growth or maintenance if the inorganic constituents of the diet are improperly adjusted.51a The most satisfactory mixture of salts t...
-Mineral Salts. Part 2
McCollum56 doubted whether the significant nitrogen content of milk could be so easily removed as would appear, and was inclined to attribute the success attained with protein-free milk to the supplem...
-Mineral Salts. Part 3
A study of the inorganic elements in nutrition was carried out by Osborne and Mendel by preparing a large variety of salt mixtures in which one or more of the elements was omitted and replaced by incr...
-Chapter IV. The Distribution Of The Vitamins
Much information of a general character as to the distribution of the vitamins has been gathered during the last decade, but our knowledge is still far from satisfactory. Only very recently has there ...
-The Distribution Of The Vitamins. Part 2
A has been found in all crude fish oils, which have been tested, but cod liver and whale oil appear to be the richest.8 8 Zilva and Miura (Lancet. 1921, I, 323) used a quantitative method of estima...
-The Distribution Of The Vitamins. Part 3
Considerable variations in the vitamin content of oleo oil may be encountered, but these are in all probability due to the seasonal variations in the diets of the animals. Oleo-stearin is practically ...
-The Distribution Of The Vitamins. Part 4
Most seeds contain some vitamin A, but very few are rich in this factor.25a Flax and millet seeds and the Georgia velvet bean have an exceptionally high content of A, but the ordinary edible seeds con...
-The Distribution Of The Vitamins. Part 5
Ripe peas of green color were found richer in vitamin A than those of a yellow color. The former also contained more yellow pigment than the latter.34 Rosenstein and Drummond35 also reported that t...
-The Distribution Of The Vitamins. Part 6
This theory as to the distribution of the anti-beriberi factor in seeds is confirmed by other experimenters,45 and McCollum 46 asserts in general that the cell-rich tissues of the plant such as the ge...
-The Distribution Of The Vitamins. Part 7
In order to obtain information regarding the relative amount of vitamin B contained in various plant tissues, Osborne and Mendel52 fed rats upon a vitamin-free basal ration to which was added a weighe...
-The Distribution Of The Vitamins. Part 8
Dry cereal grains and seeds have always been regarded as free from the vitamin C, and rations made up of such components have been used repeatedly to induce scurvy in guinea pigs. Davis has made certa...
-The Distribution Of The Vitamins. Part 9
Potatoes, raw or boiled, may serve as an effective antiscorbutic, 10 g. raw 80 or 20 g. cooked for one-half hour at 100 81 giving complete protection to guinea pigs. Report 38 of the Medical Research ...
-The Distribution Of The Vitamins. Part 10
The value of frozen meat is probably intermediate between that of fresh meat and tinned meat and, in any case, is likely to be low, especially if it has been for a long period in the frozen condition...
-Chapter V. The Stability Of The Vitamins With Regard To Conditions Of Heating, Drying, And Storing
The effect of heating, drying, and storing upon vitamins is of serious import in connection with the methods used in preparing foods. It is generally conceded that fresh foods are more valuable than t...
-The Stability Of The Vitamins When Heating, Drying, And Storing. Part 2
Recent experiments of Hopkins10 appear to demonstrate conclusively that the discrepancies in the results of different observers are due to different degrees of aeration while heating. This hypothesis ...
-The Stability Of The Vitamins When Heating, Drying, And Storing. Part 3
Commenting on the lack of uniformity in the observations reported from different sources, Steenbock and Boutwell25 conclude that the data of the different investigators in this field are substantially...
-The Stability Of The Vitamins When Heating, Drying, And Storing. Part 4
Karr 40 states that (hying at 100 C. does not affect the antineuritic efficiency of yeast, tomatoes or milk, but autoclaving at 120 C. for three to four hours leads to some destruction. M...
-The Stability Of The Vitamins When Heating, Drying, And Storing. Part 5
The antiscorbutic factor is the most sensitive of the three vitamins to heat and drying. The failure of dried vegetables and herbs and preserved meats and fish to prevent or cure outbreaks of scurvy h...
-The Stability Of The Vitamins When Heating, Drying, And Storing. Part 6
Delf71 found that swede juice was more stable to heat than cabbage juice, although the vitamin content is partially destroyed by heating to 130 C. Denton and Kohman72 could detect no loss of C...
-The Stability Of The Vitamins When Heating, Drying, And Storing. Part 7
According to Hoist and Frolich 79 the juice of lemons and raspberries retain their antiscorbutic properties after heating to 100 C. for an hour, and Delf80 found less reduction in C in the case o...
-The Stability Of The Vitamins When Heating, Drying, And Storing. Part 8
Falk and McGuire recommend the vacuum process of drying or dehydrating foods as a means of preserving the vitamin content. The absence of oxygen during drying favors the retention of the full vitamin ...
-The Stability Of The Vitamins When Heating, Drying, And Storing. Part 9
Givens and Macy105 have investigated the antiscorbutic properties of fruit juices dried by a commercial process. Lemon juice, acid and neutralised, tomato juice, grapefruit, and orange juice all conta...
-Chapter VI. Chemical Structure And Properties of The Vitamins
Nothing is yet known concerning the chemical structure, and very little concerning the properties of the fat-soluble vitamin. Most of the observations that have been made on it have to do with its sol...
-Chemical Structure And Properties of The Vitamins. Part 2
However, recent investigations pointing to the stability of vitamins toward heat, in the absence of air or oxidizing agents, suggest other causes than heat alone. It is not unlikely that the catalytic...
-Chemical Structure And Properties of The Vitamins. Part 3
Osborne and Wakeman28 added alcohol gradually to a 0.01 per cent N. acetic acid extract of yeast vitamin and tested the different fractions for growth-promoting qualities. That obtained from 52 per ce...
-Chemical Structure And Properties of The Vitamins. Part 4
Emmctt and McKim56 state that the yeast vitamin is not absorbed by kieselguhr or infusorial earths, but Brill57 found that the curative principle from rice polishings is extracted by infusorial earth,...
-Chemical Structure And Properties of The Vitamins. Part 5
Daniels and McClurg72 failed to observe any appreciable effect on the vitamin content of beans when boiled with dilute alkali for thirty minutes, but this was probably due to the fact that their ratio...
-Chemical Structure And Properties of The Vitamins. Part 6
Shortly after this work was done there appeared a paper on this subject by Edie, Evans, Moore, Simpson, and Webster,78 who used a slightly modified method. The source of their material was yeast. This...
-Chemical Structure And Properties of The Vitamins. Part 7
Recognizing the same difficulty in the use of alkali, Vedder and Williams87 and Sullivan and Voegtlin88 sought to avoid it by use of barium acetate and lead acetate respectively to decompose the phosp...
-Chemical Structure And Properties of The Vitamins. Part 8
Seidell93bhas found that the precipitate obtained by addition of ammoniacal silver nitrate to a purified vitamin extract made from yeast activated fuller's earth is highly antineuritic. This vitam...
-Chemical Structure And Properties of The Vitamins. Part 9
McCollum and Sim-monds 111 do not agree that the needs of the animal are for a.specific type of labile isomerism rather than a specific chemical complex, and suggest that the temporary relief of polyn...
-Chemical Structure And Properties of The Vitamins. Part 10
From its frequent association with lipoid and phosphorus-containing compounds131 it was natural to expect that the antineuritic vitamin itself might be a phosphorus compound, but this appears to be di...
-Chemical Structure And Properties of The Vitamins. Part 11
The juices of green malt, carrots, cabbage, potatoes, turnips, and lean beef were all found to be distinctly acid whether fresh, or after cold storage, or after boiling in an open vessel. The juice pr...
-Chapter VII. Concentrated Preparations Of Vitamins
Various methods have been devised for obtaining preparations of vitamins in concentrated form for use where the fresh foodstuffs are not available or where it is desirable to eliminate every variable ...
-Concentrated Preparations Of Vitamins. Part 2
Extract From Thymus Gland In the preparation of the vitamin fraction from the thymus gland of the hog, the following changes were found to be necessary in the above method. Thymus glands could not ...
-Concentrated Preparations Of Vitamins. Part 3
The weak sulphuric solution, thoroughly freed from the inactive ingredients and from the lead, obtained according to the above procedure may be concentrated in vacuo and a sulphuric acid solution of m...
-Concentrated Preparations Of Vitamins. Part 4
A method for the preparation of alimentary products containing vitamin B is described as follows:17a Wheat bran, or the husk of other edible seeds, is dried at 38 C. under reduced pressure and gr...
-Concentrated Preparations Of Vitamins. Part 5
Fermentation is allowed to proceed at room temperature until the reducing sugar is lowered to about 1 per cent of the original value which requires about 24 to 48 hours. The juice is then filtered wit...
-Chapter VIII. How Many Vitamins Are There?
The existence of three well-defined vitamins, growth-promoting A, antineuritic B, and antiscorbutic C, is apparently well established. Some evidence has been accumulated which points to the possibilit...
-How Many Vitamins Are There? Part 2
Funk24 noted that inhibition of growth may be caused by a diet containing vitamin, and regarded this as indication that the growth-vitamin is not identical with the anti-beriberi vitamin. This conclus...
-How Many Vitamins Are There? Part 3
Temperature of the substance itself and length of time it remained at this point. (1) Cooper, E. A., J. Hyg., 1012, si, 448. (2) Steenbock, H., J. Biol. Ghem. 1017, xrix, p. xxvii. (3...
-How Many Vitamins Are There? Part 4
Considerable work has been done by Freedman41 and others in ascertaining the identity of the substance stimulating the growth of yeast cells and its relation to the growth of bacteria. Working with a ...
-Chapter IX. Role of Vitamins In Nutrition
In considering the part played by any factor in the nutrition of an animal it is necessary to distinguish between what is adequate for maintenance and what is required for optimum growth. This has bee...
-Role of Vitamins In Nutrition. Part 2
Food with a low vitamin content fed to cows has a deleterious effect on the offspring and according to the observations of Hughes, Fitch and Cave,14a in some cases calves nursed on substances deficien...
-Role of Vitamins In Nutrition. Part 3
In this connection note should be made of Funk's experiment,22 in which the extract of tissues of birds which had been killed in the last stages of polyneuritis were found to be as efficacious for the...
-Role of Vitamins In Nutrition. Part 4
Drummond, Emmett and Alien27 had previously reported that they could find no outstanding pathological effects from deficiency of A. It has been suggested that the so-called war oedema may be du...
-Role of Vitamins In Nutrition. Part 5
Gastric, intestinal, pancreatic, and biliary insufficiency are, according to McCarrison, important consequences of a diet too rich in starch and too poor in vitamins and other essential constituents o...
-Role of Vitamins In Nutrition. Part 6
Atrophy of the sexual glands as a result of vitamin deficiency has been noted repeatedly,*8 and would account for the sterility frequently observed among animals on a deficient diet.49 McCarrison50 sa...
-Role of Vitamins In Nutrition. Part 7
If then a factor or factors essential to growth be missing from, or deficient in, a dietary, the consequent arrest of, or diminution in, growth energy may diminish the instinctive consumption of food,...
-Role of Vitamins In Nutrition. Part 8
Howe found that deficiency in C may also cause serious defects in the teeth. Guinea pigs which have been kept on a scorbutic diet for a considerable period of time show effects which simulate pyorrhea...
-Role of Vitamins In Nutrition. Part 9
In a study of the growth of tumors in mice Van Alstyne and Beebe77 found that 24 out of 26 animals on a diet of casein, lard and lactose grew a tumor with fatal results, while on a diet of casein and ...
-Role of Vitamins In Nutrition. Part 10
Vedder 94 is of the opinion that the antineuritic vitamin is a building stone which is essential for the metabolism of the nerve tissues, basing his opinion on the following facts: 1. If the supply...
-Role of Vitamins In Nutrition. Part 11
There are two classes of factors which play a well-recognised part in physiological processes, the hormones and the enzymes. In certain respects, such as the difficulty met with in' attempting to sepa...
-Role of Vitamins In Nutrition. Part 12
McCarrison's noteworthy summary of the functions of vitamins113 very concisely and positively sets forth their bearing on health and disease: (1) Vitaminee are constant constituents of living tiss...
-Chapter X. Rickets
Findlay, in his admirable historical survey of rickets,1 defines this disease as a derangement of which the chief manifestation is to be seen in the growing bone, in which there is an excessive and ir...
-Rickets. Part 2
It is the development of this osteoid tissue thai is the true characteristic histological feature of rickets. This disease appears to be remarkably wide-spread. Schmorl6 states that histological in...
-Rickets. Part 3
Several distinguished authorities 17 have favored the hypothesis that rickets arises from deficiency of fat in the diet,17a a view which received support from the often-quoted work of Bland-Sutton on ...
-Rickets. Part 4
A large number of animal and vegetable fats and oils were tested, and it was found that all were preventive except linseed.30a When milk fat is eliminated from the diet by using separator milk, and li...
-Rickets. Part 5
That the curative power of cod-liver oil for rickets 32 is not associated with its content of A is indicated by the work of Phemiater, Miller and Bonar,33 who found that phosphorus and cod-liver oil a...
-Chapter XI. Beriberi
The disease of beriberi has been common in the Orient for many years. The Malay States, Siam, Corea, parts of Japan, and the Philippines have all been extensively afflicted with it Hoist1 reports that...
-Beriberi. Part 2
In 1897, Eijkmann, a Dutch physician who was medical officer at a prison in Java, noted that a number of fowls which he was maintaining for experimental purposes had developed symptoms curiously like ...
-Beriberi. Part 3
Evidence soon accumulated showing that rice was not the only food due to which beriberi might develop. Vedder and Clark24 and Ohler 25 showed that typical polyneuritis developed in fowls fed on a diet...
-Beriberi. Part 4
Sicard, Roger and Rimbaud 34 point out that the cerebellar symptoms common in polyneuritis of fowls are not seen in human beriberi, and for that reason they are inclined to doubt whether the avian pol...
-Beriberi. Part 5
Shibayama 53 came to somewhat the same point of view from his study of beriberi in Japan. While a monotonous and one-sided diet may give rise to the onset of the symptoms, he is unwilling to grant tha...
-Beriberi. Part 6
Rice as it comes from the thresher { paddy rice) is enclosed in a hull which must be removed by grinding the rice between atones, or, as in Burmah, in a larger mortar. The grain produced by this op...
-Beriberi. Part 7
Vedder71 points out that in the reports of cases which are supposed to discredit the dietary hypothesis the statements regarding the diet on which the disease has been developed are too vague to be of...
-Chapter XII. Scurvy
Scurvy has long been the dread of navigators, explorers, and armies in the field; in fact wherever men are cut off from available supplies of fresh food its ravages are known. Babies fed exclusively o...
-Scurvy. Part 2
While the acute stages of infantile scurvy are comparatively rare, incipient cases are more common, and not always easily recognised. Comby10 reports that 90 per cent of the 72 cases of this disease w...
-Scurvy. Part 3
The symptoms of guinea pig scurvy have been very carefully noted by various observers. A full description is given by Cohen and Mendel16 who remark as follows: In the guinea pig this is a disease t...
-Scurvy. Part 4
Chronic poisoning by tainted meat and fish was held responsible by Jackson and Harley25 a theory which found some acceptance when first promulgated, but the experimental evidence on which it was based...
-Scurvy. Part 5
On the other hand, one must not forget that marked soorbutio symptoms have been induced in guinea pigs on laxative diets. Infantile scurvy has also been found to occur quite as often in connection wit...
-Scurvy. Part 6
Two of these were ordered each a quart of cider a day. Two others took twenty-five drops of elixir vitriol, three times a day, upon an empty stomach; using a gargle strongly acidulated with it for the...
-Chapter XIII. Xerophthalmia
Experimenters in animal nutrition have frequently observed the susceptibility of animals on certain deficient diets to an affection of the eye which is variously described as a conjunctivitis,1 a xero...
-Xerophthalmia. Part 2
While these results indicate that a fat deficiency may be withstood for a comparatively long period without obvious injury especially in early infancy, it may still be contended that prolonged feeding...
-Xerophthalmia. Part 3
McCollum27 regards xerophthalmia as a true deficiency disease specifically due to a lack of A. His view is confirmed by Bmmett28 who reports that out of 122 rats in a group fed on a diet in which A wa...
-Chapter XIV. Pellagra
Whether pellagra is or is not to be regarded as one of the deficiency diseases from the point of view of the vitamin hypothesis is still open to question. There is, however, sufficient evidence for th...
-Pellagra. Part 2
Although the main reliance in the recognition of the disease, the eruption of pellagra, not infrequently is very tardy in making its appearance, while, until it appears, it is ordinarily impossible to...
-Pellagra. Part 3
Murlin12 found that the quantity of hippuric acid excreted by pellagrins, especially those kept on a corn-vegetable diet, was from two to three times the quantity excreted by normal men on a normal di...
-Pellagra. Part 4
Jobling and Peterson,31 in their survey of pellagra in Nashville, came to practically the same conclusions as the Thompson Commission. Their observation that a close relationship exists between the sa...
-Pellagra. Part 5
Dinner: Tomato soup; salt pork boiled with vegetables, usually cabbage, sometimes string beans; Irish potatoes; fresh meat only on rare occasions in the winter, never in summer; biscuit or corn bread....
-Pellagra. Part 6
Mr. S., a freight conductor. A very .large and muscular man weighing 245 pounds and apparently a very well-nourished man. Eruption of pellagra pronounced, but no other symptoms except that he lost fif...
-Pellagra. Part 7
The food deficiency theory receives further support from the beneficial results of a rich and varied diet in the treatment of the disease. Even those authorities who disagree with this theory as to th...
-Pellagra. Part 8
The administration of the liver and thymus preparations to pellagrins was followed by an improvement in their condition apparently comparable to that produced by the consumption of a diet rich in fres...
-Pellagra. Part 9
Unfortunately the results obtained from the different experiments with corn were not concordant, and further confirmation is necessary before Thomas's figure for the biological value of corn protein c...
-Chapter XV. Milk
The constituents of milk are fat, carbohydrate, protein, salts, and vitamins, with 83 to 90 per cent of water. The carbohydrates, proteins, salts, and the vitamins B and C are in aqueous solution, whi...
-Milk. Part 2
Human milk contains a smaller percentage of caseinogen than cow's milk, although different investigators differ somewhat as to the relative proportions.12 The caseinogen of human milk differs from tha...
-Milk. Part 3
On the other hand, in a later set of experiments 24 in which the ration used was purified protein, 18 per cent, artificial protein-flree milk,25 29.5 per cent, starch, 16.5 to 26 per cent, butter-fa...
-Milk. Part 4
With the exception of iron,32 the various salts appear to be present in greater amount in cow's milk than in human milk. In particular the important elements, calcium and phosphorus, are both greatly ...
-Milk. Part 5
Milk powder prepared by spraying milk with heated air has been tested by Dutcher and Ackerson.42a Eight guinea pigs, used as controls, were fed a diet of oats ad libitum and 30 c.c. (daily) of fresh r...
-Milk. Part 6
In the case of physiological underfeeding there is almost invariably an actual increase in the yield of milk fat, as well as in the percentage in the milk. The character of the milk fat is altered, as...
-Milk. Part 7
With respect to the vitamins, it is the general opinion that these pass into the milk only as supplied from the food of the mother, and that the mammary gland has no power of synthesizing these essent...
-Milk. Part 8
While pasteurization serves to destroy the most harmful of the disease bacteria as well as the lactic acid bacilli which cause souring, certain bacterial forms are capable of surviving this process, n...
-Milk. Part 9
Hogan,84 using rations of butter-fat, starch, agar, protein-free milk, and casein, obtained results at variance with those of McCollum and Davis. Even when the casein had been heated for two hours at ...
-Milk. Part 10
It seems clear from the foregoing that neither of the vitamins A 92 and B are appreciably affected by the ordinary heating of milk. It should be noted, however, that Sekine 93 found that although wean...
-Milk. Part 11
What has been, said of pasteurised milk will hold in general for evaporated and condensed milks. The general methods of preparation of these products have been described (p. 277). Condensed (sweetened...
-Milk. Part 12
Winfield investigated 87 cases of infants on a dried milk diet and found that their growth curves closely resembled the average curves for breast-fed children, teething and walking began at normal age...
-Chapter XVI. Vitamins For The Baby
It should be evident from what has already been said that the importance of the vitamins, especially in early life, can hardly be overemphasized. Apart from the specific diseases, scurvy, xerophthalmi...
-Vitamins For The Baby. Part 2
From his experiments on rats Drummond7 has been led to believe that certain types of malnutrition common among the lower classes may be the result of diets more or less inadequate in regard to vitamin...
-Vitamins For The Baby. Part 3
In discussing the proportion of B in milk, Osborne and Mendel15 advise the use of a liberal amount of milk when this is depended on to supply any considerable proportion of this most necessary food fa...
-Chapter XVII. What To Eat From The Vitamin Standpoint
The question which follows naturally from a study of the vitamins and their importance in the maintenance of health is how much vitamin-containing food is required in the daily ration? Unfortunately t...
-What To Eat From The Vitamin Standpoint. Part 2
Since it has been found possible to obtain potent concentrated extracts of the A vitamin from the grasses, there seems no reason why it should not be possible to enrich a vitamin-poor fat with such ex...
-What To Eat From The Vitamin Standpoint. Part 3
The same argument may be advanced for the generous use of fruits. These are particularly valuable for their antiscorbutic properties, but most common fruits contain a small amount of B. Bananas contai...
-Chapter XVIII. The Use Of The Vitamins In Clinical Medicine
There is comparatively little material available at present on the use of vitamins in clinical medicine. The whole subject is too new and too little understood to have had widespread application as ye...
-Chapter XIX. Vitamins And The Lower Organisms
In 1901 Wildiers 1 made the statement that yeast will not grow in a nutrient solution containing ammonium salts as the sole source of nitrogen if the amount of the inoculating material is small. If th...
-Vitamins And The Lower Organisms. Continued
Willaman 19 has studied the metabolism of Sclerotinia cinerea, particularly with regard to the function of vitamins, and offers some in teresting conclusions. Sclerotinia cinerea, the brown rot fungus...
-Appendix. Distribution Of Vitamin A
FATS ANIMAL PRODUCTS SUBSTANCE REFERENCE REMARKS Beef fat Osborne and Mendel, J. Biol. Chem. 30, 379, 1916...
-Distribution Of Vitamin B
Pancreas Eddy, J. Biol. Chem. 27, 113, 1016-17. Water extract contains considerable growth-promoting 8. Williams, lb. 38, 473, 1010. ...







TOP
previous page: The Relation Of Food To Health And Premature Death | Geo. H. Townsend, Felix J. Levy, Geo. Clinton Crandall
  
page up: Diet and Nutrition Books
  
next page: Fletcherism. What It Is, Or How I Became Young At Sixty | by Horace Fletcher