To understand this condition, one needs but to make a study of paranoia, from which it differs but in degree.2 Conceit and suspicion, which are the fundamental traits of paranoia, here, too, lie at the root of all maladjustment; only here they do not lead so far as to produce a delusional system, as they do in paranoia. One sees, however, the same stubborn adherence to a fixed idea, contempt for the opinions of others, bias of judgment leading to distortion of practical values, argumentativeness, and tendency to develop persecutory trends.

Not a few such cases were seen in the National Army in the World War as so-called conscientious objectors. One draftee was opposed to killing "even a mosquito," lived on vegetable diet, and would not serve even in a non-combatant branch of the army, as thus he would be giving his active support to the "general purpose of killing." Another, a third-rate sculptor with a predilection for a bizarre, symbolic art, let his hair grow long, wore only bedroom slippers everywhere and in all kinds of weather, and would not put on a soldier's uniform and obey the law of conscription for the reason that "being an artist, and art being constructive, I could take no part in war, which is destructive." Some negroes were seen, who, though formerly "wicked," had recently become "converted" and, as "Christians," could not go to fight their fellow men.

A considerable group was made up of "International Bible Students" or "Russellites." One of these wrote a fifty-page explanation, concluding it with the following remarks:

1 A. J. Rosanoff. Survey of Mental Disorders in Nassau County, N. Y. Report published by The National Committee for Mental Hygiene, New York, 1917.

2 See Chapter V (The Practice Of Psychiatry. History Taking - Methods Of Examination), Part II, this Manual.

"No doubt these words will seem kind of foolish to you, because the Bible says that men with earthey idears and ambitions cannot understand speritual things. So I hope that you can see that I am not trying to save my own skin, by evadeing the military service, as I have explained, that I have seen through the Bible, where we people are all born in sin, and cannot do anything perfect, and that this war is only to bring around the conditions that will make the people look to God for everything later. And I have been trying to live up to God's laws, and am running for the high prize, and hope to make it, probably in the spring of 1918. As this year (1918) Text of the International Bible Students' Association is 1 Peter 4:7 and 8. The end of all things is at hand: be ye therefore sober and watch unto prayer, and above all things have fervent love among yourselves. I believe I have written enough to explain my proof - against participating in war, however if not enough why I have plenty more."

Emotional Instability

Often the dominant note in the character of the psychopath is extreme mobility of the emotions. The subject passes alternately from exuberant joy to boundless desolation, from feverish activity to profound discouragement, from affection to hatred, from the most complete egoism to the most exaggerated generosity and devotion.

A special type of emotionally unstable psychopaths is found among impulsive criminals. They fly readily into uncontrollable rage and commit violent assaults. Punishment seems to have no deterrent effect. These subjects are given not only to repetitions of crimes of violence upon release from imprisonment, but, even while serving sentence where there can be no chance of escaping consequences, they yield to their impulses, assault other prisoners or keepers, and lose their chance of release for which they long so impatiently.