1. Vocabulary: Sixty-Five Definitions

Procedure and Scoring, as in previous vocabulary tests.

2. Interpretation Of Fables (Score 8). Procedure

As in year XII, test 6. Use the same fables.

Scoring

The method of scoring is the same as for XII, but the total score must be 8 points to satisfy the requirements at this level.

3. Differences Between Abstract Terms. Procedure

Say: What is the difference between: (a) Laziness and idleness? (6) Evolution and revolution? (c) Poverty and misery? (d) Character and reputation?

Scoring

Three correct contrasting definitions out of four are necessary for a pass. It is not sufficient merely to give a correct meaning for each word of a pair; the subject must point out a difference between the two words so as to make a real contrast. For example, if the subject defines evolution as a "growth" or "gradual change," and revolution as the running of a wheel on its axis, the experimenter should say: "Yes, but I want you to tell me the difference between evolution and revolution." If the contrast is not then forthcoming the response is marked minus. The following are sample definitions which may be considered acceptable:

(a) Laziness and idleness

"Laziness means you don't want to work; idleness means you are not doing anything just now." "Laziness comes from within; idleness may be forced upon one." The essential contrast, accordingly, is that laziness refers to univillingness to work; idleness to the mere fact of inactivity. This contrast must be expressed, however clumsily.

(b) Evolution and revolution

"Evolution is a gradual change; revolution is a sudden change." "Evolution is ratural development; revolution is sudden upheaval."

The essential distinction, accordingly, is that evolution means a gradual, natural, or slow change, while revolution means a sudden, forced, or violent change. Non-contrasting definitions, even when the individual terms are defined correctly, are not satisfactory.

(c) Poverty and misery

"Poverty is when you are poor; misery means suffering." "Poverty comes from lack of money; misery, from lack of happiness or comfort."

(d) Character and reputation

"Character is what you are; reputation is what people say about you." "A man has a good character if he would not do evil; but a man may have a good reputation and still have a bad character."

A little practice and a good deal of discrimination are necessary for the correct grading of responses to this test. Subjects are often so clumsy in expression that their responses are anything but clear. It is then necessary to ask them to explain what they mean. Further questioning, however, is not permissible. For uniformity in scoring it is necessary to bear in mind that the definitions given must, in order to be satisfactory, express the essential distinction between the two words.

4. Problem Of The Enclosed Boxes. Procedure

Show the subject a cardboard box about one inch on a side. Say: "You see this box; it has two smaller boxes inside of it and each of the smaller boxes contains a little tiny box. How many boxes are there altogether, counting the big one?" To be sure that the subject understands repeat the statement of the problem: "First the large box, then two smaller ones, and each of the smaller ones contains a little tiny box."

Record the response, and, showing another box, say: "This box has two smaller boxes inside, and each of the smaller boxes contains two tiny boxes. How many altogether? Remember, first the large box, then two smaller ones, and each smaller one contains two tiny boxes."

The third problem, which is given in the same way, states that there are three smaller boxes, each of which contains three tiny boxes.

In the fourth problem there are four smaller boxes, each containing jour tiny boxes.

The problem must be given orally, and the solution must be found without the aid of pencil or paper. Only one half-minute is allowed for each problem. Note that each problem is stated twice.

A correction is permitted, provided it is offered spontaneously and does not seem to be the result of guessing. Guessing can be checked up by asking the subject to explain the solution.

Scoring

Three of the four problems must be solved correctly within the half-minute allotted to each.