Procedure and Scoring, as in VIII, X, and XII.
Provide six sheets of thin blank paper, say 8 1/2 by 11 inches. Take the first sheet, and telling the subject to watch what you do, fold it once, and in the middle of the folded edge tear out or cut out a small notch; then ask the subject to tell you how many holes there will be in the paper when it is unfolded. The correct answer, one, is nearly always given without hesitation. But whatever the answer, unfold the paper and hold it up broadside for the subject's inspection. Next, take another sheet, fold it once as before and say: "Now, when we folded it this way and tore out a piece, you remember it made one hole in the paper. This time we will give the paper another fold and see how many holes we shall have." Then proceed to fold the paper again, this time in the other direction, and tear out a piece from the folded side and ask how many holes there will be when the paper is unfolded. After recording the answer, unfold the paper, hold it up before the subject so as to let him see the result. The answer is often incorrect and the unfolded sheet is greeted with an exclamation of surprise. The governing principle is seldom made out at this stage of the experiment. But regardless of the correctness or incorrectness of the first and second answers, proceed with the third sheet.
Fold it once and say: "When we folded it this way there was one hole." Then fold it again and say: "And when we folded it this way there were two holes." At this point fold the paper a third time and say: "Now, lam folding it again. How many holes will it have this time when I unfold it?" Record the answer and again unfold the paper while the subject looks on.
Continue in the same manner with sheets four, five, and six, adding one fold each time. In folding each sheet recapitulate the results with the previous sheets, saying (with the sixth, for example): "When we folded it this way there was one hole, when we folded it again there were two, when we folded it again there were four, when we folded it again there were eight, when we folded it again there were sixteen; now, tell me how many holes there will be if we fold it once more." In the recapitulation avoid the expression "When we folded it once, twice, three times," etc., as this often leads the subject to double the numeral heard instead of doubling the number of holes in the previously folded sheet. After the answer is given, do not fail to unfold the paper and let the subject view the result.
The test is passed if the rule is grasped by the time the sixth sheet is reached; that is, the subject may pass after five incorrect responses, provided the sixth is correct and the governing rule can then be given. It is not permissible to ask for the rule until all six parts of the experiment have been given. Nothing must be said which could even suggest the operation of a rule. Often, however, the subject grasps the principle after two or three steps and gives it spontaneously. In this case it is unnecessary to proceed with the remaining steps.
Say: "There are three main differences between a president and a king; what are they?" If the subject stops after one difference is given, we urge him on, if possible, until three are given.
The three differences relate to power, tenure, and manner of accession. Only these differences are considered correct, and the successful response must include at least two of the three. We disregard crudities of expression and note merely whether the subject has the essential idea. As regards power, for example, any of the following responses are satisfactory: "The king is absolute and the president is not." "The king rules by himself, but the president rules with the help of the people." "Kings can have things their own way more than presidents can," etc.
It may be objected that the reverse of this is sometimes true, that the king of to-day often has less power than the average president. Sometimes subjects mention this fact, and when they do we credit them with this part of the test. As a matter of fact, however, this answer is seldom given.
Sometimes the subject does not stop until he has given a half-dozen or more differences, and in such cases the first three differences may be trivial and some of the later ones essential. The question then arises whether we should disregard the errors and pass the subject on his later correct responses. The rule in such cases is to ask the subject to pick out the "three main differences."
Sometimes accession and tenure are given in the form of a single contrast, as: "The president is elected, but the king inherits his throne and rules for life." This answer entitles the subject to credit for both accession and tenure,, the contrast as regards tenure being plainly implied.
Say to the subject: "Listen, and see if you can understand what I read." Then read the three problems, rather slowly and with expression, pausing after each long enough for the subject to find an answer.
Do not ask questions calculated to draw out the correct response, but wait in silence for the subject's spontaneous answer. It is permissible, however, to re-read the passage if the subject requests it.
Two responses out of three must be satisfactory.
The only-correct answer for the first is "A man who had hung himself" (or who had committed suicide, been hanged, etc.). We may also pass the following answer: "Dead branches that looked like a man hanging."
Unsatisfactory: - There is an endless variety of failures: "A snake," "A monkey," "A robber," or "A tramp."
The expected answer is "A death," "Someone has died," etc. We must always check up this response, however, by asking what the lawyer came for, and this must also be answered correctly. "A murder. The doctor came to examine the body, the lawyer to get evidence, and the preacher to preach at the funeral."
If an incorrect answer is first given and then corrected, the correction is accepted.
Unsatisfactory: - The failures again are quite varied, but are most frequently due to failure to understand the lawyer's mission. "A baby born." "An entertainment." "Some friends came to chat." "Somebody was sick; the lawyer wanted his money and the minister came to see how he was."
The only correct response is "Bicycle." The most common error is horse (or donkey), accounting for 48 out of 71 tabulated failures. Vehicles, like wagon, buggy, automobile, or street car, were mentioned in 14 out of 71 failures.
The problems are shown one at a time to the subject, who reads each problem aloud and (with the printed problem still before him) finds the answer without the use of pencil or paper.
Only one minute is allowed for each problem, but nothing is said about hurrying. "While one problem is being solved the others should be hidden from view. It is not permissible, if the subject gives an incorrect answer, to ask him to solve the problem again. The following exception, however, is made to this rule: if the answer given to the third problem indicates that the word yard has been read as feet, the subject is asked to read the problem through again carefully (aloud) and to tell how he solved it. No further help of any kind may be given.
Two of the three problems must be solved correctly within the minute allotted to each. No credit is allowed for correct method if the answer is wrong.
Say to the subject: "Suppose it is six-twenty-two o'clock, that is, twenty-two minutes after six; can you see in your mind where the large hand would be, and where the small hand would be?" Subjects of twelve- to fourteen-year intelligence practically always answer this in the affirmative. Then continue: "Now, suppose the two hands of the clock were to trade places, so that the large hand takes the place where the small hand was, and the small hand takes the place where the large hand was. What time would it then bef "
Repeat the test with the hands at 8.10 (10 minutes after 8), and again with the hands at 2.46 (14 minutes before 3).
The subject is not allowed to look at a clock or watch, or to aid himself by drawing, but must work out the problem mentally. As a rule the answer is given within a few seconds or not at all. If an answer is not forthcoming within two minutes the score is failure.
The test is passed if two of the three problems are solved within the following range of accuracy: the first solution is considered correct if the answer falls between 4.30 and 4.35, inclusive; the second if the answer falls between 1.40 and 1.45, and the third if the answer falls between 9.10 and 9.15.
This time, as in year X, only two series are given, one of which must be repeated without error. The two series are: 2-1-8-3-4-3-9 and 9-7-2-8-4-7-5. Note that in none of the tests of repeating digits is it permissible to warn the subject of the number to be given.