1. Pointing To Parts Of The Body. Procedure

After getting the child's attention, say: "Show me your nose." "Put your finger on your nose," Same with eyes, mouth, and hair.

1 See Chapter I, Part II, this Manual.

Tact is often necessary to overcome timidity. If two or three repetitions of the instruction fail to bring a response, point to the child's chin or ear and say: "Is this your nose?" "No?" "Then where is your nose?" Sometimes, after one has tried two or three parts of the test without eliciting any response, the child may suddenly release his inhibitions and answer all the questions promptly. In case of persistent refusal to respond it is best not to harass the child for an answer, but to leave the test for a while and return to it later.

Scoring. Three responses out of four must be correct.

2. Naming Familiar Objects. Procedure

Use a key, a penny, a closed knife, a watch, and an ordinary lead pencil. The key should be the usual large-sized doorkey, not one of the Yale type. The penny should not be too new, for the freshly made, untarnished penny resembles very little the penny usually seen. Any ordinary pocket knife may be used, and it is to be shown unopened. The formula is, "What is this?" or, "Tell me what this is."

Scoring

There must be at least three correct responses out of five. A response is not correct unless the object is named. It is not sufficient for the child merely to show that he knows its use.

3. Enumeration Of Objects In Pictures. Procedure

Use the three pictures designated as "Dutch Home." "River Scene," and "Post-Office." Say, "Now I am going to show you a pretty picture." Then, holding the first one before the child, close enough to permit distinct vision, say: "Tell me what you see in this picture." If there is no response, as sometimes happens, due to embarrassment or timidity, repeat the request in this form: "Look at the picture and tell me everything you can see in it." If there is still no response, say: "Show me the . . ." (naming some object in the picture). Only one question of this type, however, is permissible. If the child answers correctly, say: "That is fine; now tell me everything you see in the picture." If the child names one or two things in a picture and then stops, urge him on by saying, "And what else?" Proceed with pictures b and c in the same manner.

Scoring. The test is passed if the child enumerates as many as three objects in one picture spontaneously; that is, without intervening questions or urging.

4. Giving Sex. Procedure

If the subject is a boy, the formula is: "Are you a little boy or a little girl?" If a girl, "Are you a little girl or a little boy?" This variation in the formula is necessary because of the tendency in young children to repeat mechanically the last word of anything that is said to them. If there is no response, say: "Are you a little girl?" (if a boy); or, "Are you a little boy?" (if a girl). If the answer to the last question is "no" (or shake of the head), we then say: "Well, what are you? Are you a little boy or a little girl?" (or vice versa) .

Scoring

The response is satisfactory if it indicates that the child has really made the discrimination, but we must be cautious about accepting any other response than the direct answer, "A little girl," or, "A little boy." "Yes" and "no" in response to the second question must be carefully checked up.

5. Giving The Family Name. Procedure

The child is asked, "What is your name?" If the answer, as often happens, includes only the first name (Walter, for example), say: "Yes, but what is your other name? Walter what? ' If the child is silent, or if he only repeats the first name, say: "Is your name Walter . .?" (giving a fictitious name, as Jones, Smith, etc.). This question nearly always brings the correct answer if it is known.

Scoring

Simply + or - . No attention is paid to faults of pronunciation.

6. Repeating Six To Seven Syllables. Procedure

Begin by saying: "Can you say ' mamma '? Now, say 'nice kitty.' " Then ask the child to say, "I have a little dog." Speak the sentence distinctly and with expression, but in a natural voice and not too slowly. If there is no response, the first sentence may be repeated two or three times. Then give the other two sentences: "The dog runs ajter the cat," and "In summer the sun is hot." A great deal of tact is sometimes necessary to enlist the child's cooperation in this test. If he cannot be persuaded to try, the alternative test of three digits may be substituted.

Scoring

The test is passed if at least one sentence is repeated without error after a single reading. "Without error" is to be taken literally; there must be no omission, insertion, or transposition of words. Ignore indistinctness of articulation and defects of pronunciation as long as they do not mutilate the sentence beyond easy recognition.

Alternative Test: Repeating Three Digits. Procedure

Use the following digits: 6-4-1, 3-5-2, 8-3-7. Begin with two digits, as follows: "Listen; say 4-2." "Now, say 6-4-1." "Now, say 3-5-2," etc. Pronounce the digits in a distinct voice and with perfectly uniform emphasis at a rate just a little faster than one per second. Two per second, as recommended by Binet, is too rapid.

Young subjects, because of their natural timidity in the presence of strangers, sometimes refuse to respond to this test. With subjects under five or six years of age it is sometimes necessary in such cases to re-read the first series of digits several times in order to secure a response. The response thus secured, however, is not counted in scoring, the purpose of the re-reading being merely to break the child's silence. The second and third seiies may be read but once.

Scoring

Passed if the child repeats correctly, after a single reading, one series out of the three series given. Not only must the correct digits be given, but the order also must be correct.