1. Comparison Of Lines. Procedure

Present the appropriate accompanying card with the lines in horizontal position. Point to the lines and say: "See these lines.

Look closely and tell me which one is longer. Put your finger on the longest one." We use the superlative as well as the comparative form of long because it is often more familiar to young subjects. If the child does not respond, say: "Show me which line is the biggest." Then withdraw the card, turn it about a few times, and present it again with the position of the two lines reversed, saying: "Now show me the longest." Turn the card again and make a third presentation.

Scoring

All three comparisons must be made correctly; or if only two responses out of three are correct, all three pairs are again shown, just as before, and if there is no error this time, the test is passed. The standard, therefore, is three correct responses out of three, or five out of six.

Sometimes the child points, but at no particular part of the card. In such cases it may be difficult to decide whether he has failed to comprehend and to make the discrimination or has only been careless in pointing. It is then necessary to repeat the experiment until the evidence is clear.

2. Discrimination Of Forms. Procedure

First, place the circle of the duplicate set at "X," and say: "Show me one like this," at the same time passing the finger around the circumference of the circle. If the child does not respond, say: "Do you see all of these things?" (running the finger over the various forms); "And do you see this one?" (pointing again to the circle); "Now find me another one just like this." Use the square next, then the triangle, and the others in any order.

Correct the child's first error by saying: "No, find one just like this" (again passing the finger around the outline of the form at "X "). Make no comment on errors after the first one, proceeding at once with the next form, but each time the choice is correct encourage the child with a hearty " That's good,"or something similar.

Scoring

The test is passed if seven out of ten choices are correct, the first corrected error being counted.

3. Counting Four Pennies. Procedure

Place four pennies in a horizontal row before the child. Say: "See these pennies. Count them and tell me how many there are. Count them with your finger, this way" (pointing to the first one on the child's left) - "One" - "Now, go ahead." If the child simply gives the number (whether right or wrong) without pointing, say: "No; count them with your finger, this way," starting him off as before. Have him count them aloud.

Scoring

The test is passed only if the counting tallies with the pointing. It is not sufficient merely to state the correct number without pointing.

4. Copying A Square. Procedure

Place before the child a cardboard on which is drawn in heavy black lines a square about 1 1/4 inches on a side. Give the child a pencil and say: "You see that (pointing to the square). I want you to make one just like it. Make it right here (showing where it is to be drawn). Go ahead. I know you can do it nicely."

Avoid such an expression as, "I want you to draw a figure like that." The child may not know the meaning of either draw or figure. Also, in pointing to the model, take care not to run the finger around the four sides.

Give three trials, saying each time: "Make it exactly like this," pointing to model. Make sure that the child is in an easy position and that the paper used is held so it cannot slip.

Scoring

The test is passed if at least one drawing out of the three is as good as those marked + on the score card. Young subjects usually reduce figures in drawing from copy, but size is wholly disregarded in scoring. It is of more importance that the right angles be fairly well preserved than that the lines should be straight or the corners entirely closed. The scoring of this test should be rather liberal.

6. Comprehension, First Degree. Procedure

After getting the child's attention, say: "What must you do when you are sleepy?" If necessary the question may be repeated a number of times, using a persuasive and encouraging tone of voice. No other form of question may be substituted.

About twenty seconds may be allowed for an answer, though as a rule subjects of four or five years usually answer quite promptly or not at all.

Proceed in the same way with the other two questions: "What ought you to do when you are cold?" "What ought you to do when you are hungry? "

Scoring

There must be two correct responses out of three. No one form of answer k required. It is sufficient if the question is comprehended and given a reasonably sensible answer. The following are samples of correct responses: - (a) "Go to bed." "Go to sleep." "Have my mother get me ready for bed." "Lie still, not talk, and I'll soon be asleep." (6) "Put on a coat" (or "cloak," "furs," "wrap up," etc.). "Build a fire." "Run and I'll soon get warm." "Get close to the stove." "Go into the house," or, "Go to bed," may possibly deserve the score plus, though they are somewhat doubtful and are certainly inferior to the responses just given, (c) "Eat something." "Drink some milk." "Buy a lunch." "Have my mamma spread some bread and butter," etc.

6. Repeating Four Digits. Procedure

Say: "Now, listen. I am going to say over some numbers and after I am through, I want you to say them exactly like I do. Listen closely and get them just right - 4-7-3-9." Same with 2-8-5-4 and 7-2-6-1. The examiner should consume nearly four seconds in pronouncing each series, and should practice in advance until this speed can be closely approximated. If the child refuses to respond, the first series may be repeated as often as may be necessary to prove an attempt, but success with a series which has been re-read may not be counted. The second and third series may be pronounced but once.

Scoring

Passed if the child repeats correctly, after a single reading, one series out of the three series given. The order must be correct.

Alternative Test: Repeating Twelve To Thirteen Syllables. Procedure

Get the child's attention and say:

"Listen, say this: ' Where is kitty? ' " After the child responds, add: "Now say this . . . ," reading the first sentence in a natural voice, distinctly and with expression. If the child is too timid to respond, the first sentence may be re-read, but in this case the response is not counted. Re-reading is permissible only with the first sentence.

Scoring

The test is passed if at least one sentence is repeated without error after a single reading. As in the alternative test of year III, we ignore ordinary indistinctness and defects of pronunciation due to imperfect language development, but the sentence must be repeated without addition, omission, or transposition of words.