The words to be defined are pity, revenge, charity, envy, and justice. The formula is, "What is pity? What do we mean by pity?" and so on with the other words. If the meaning of the response is not clear, ask the subject to explain what he means. If the definition is in terms of the word itself, as "Pity means to pity someone." "Revenge is to take revenge," etc., it is then necessary to say: "Yes, but what does it mean to pity someone?" or, "What does it mean to take revenge?" etc. Only supplementary questions of this kind are permissible.
The test is passed if three of the five words are satisfactorily defined. The definition need not be strictly logical nor the language elegant. It is sufficient if the definition shows that the meaning of the word is known. Definitions which define by means of an illustration are acceptable. The following are samples of satisfactory and unsatisfactory responses:
(a) Pity. Satisfactory: - "To be sorry for someone." "If anybody gets hurt real bad you pity them." "You see something that's wrong and have your feeling aroused."
Unsatisfactory: - "To think of the poor." "To cheer people up." "It's when you break something."
(b) Revenge. Satisfactory: - "To get even with someone." "To hurt them back." "You kill a person if he does something to you."
Unsatisfactory: - "To be mad." "To kill them." "To hate someone who has done you wrong."
(c) Charity. Satisfactory: - "To give to the poor." "To give to somebody without pay."
Unsatisfactory: - "A place where poor people get food and things." "Charity is being treated good."
(d) Envy. Satisfactory: - "You envy someone who has something you want." "It's when you see a person better off than you are."
Unsatisfactory: - "To hate someone." "Bad feeling toward anyone."
(e) Justice. Satisfactory: - "To give people what they deserve." "If one does something and gets punished, that's justice."
Unsatisfactory: - "It means to have peace." "It is where they have court."
Procedure, as in year VIII, test 1.
Score 3 (or superior plan) is required for passing in year XII. (See scoring card.)
The Stanford record booklet contains the sentences in convenient form.
It is not permissible to substitute written words or printed script, as that would make the test harder. All the words should be printed in caps in order that no clue shall be given as to the first word in a sentence. For a similar reason the period is omitted.
Say: "Here is a sentence that has the words all mixed up so that they don't make any sense. If the words were changed around in the right order they would make a good sentence. Look carefully and see if you can tell me how the sentence ought to read."
Give the sentences in the order in which they are listed in the record booklet. Do not tell the subject to see how quickly he can do it, because with this test any suggestion of hurrying is likely to produce a kind of mental paralysis. If the subject has no success with the first sentence in one minute, read it off correctly for him, somewhat slowly, and pointing to each word as it is spoken. Then proceed to the second and third, allowing one minute for each.
Give no further help. It is not permissible, in case any incorrect response is given, to ask the subject to try again, or to say: "Are you sure that is right?" "Are you sure you have not left out any words?" etc. Instead, maintain absolute silence. However, the subject is permitted to make as many changes in his response as he sees fit, provided he makes them spontaneously and within the allotted time. Record the entire response.
Once in a great while the subject misunderstands the task and thinks the only requirements is to use all the words given, and that it is permitted to add as many other words as he likes. It is then necessary to repeat the instructions and to allow a new trial.
Two sentences out of three must be correctly given within the minute allotted to each. It is understood, of course, that if the first sentence has to be read for the subject, both the other responses must be given correctly.
A sentence is not counted correct if a single word is omitted, altered, or inserted, or if the order given fails to make perfect sense.
Certain responses are not absolutely incorrect, but are objectionable as regards sentence structure, or else fail to give the exact meaning intended. These are given half credit. Full credit on one, and half credit on each of the other two, is satisfactory.
(a) Satisfactory: - "We started for the country at an early hour." "At an early hour we started for the country." "We started at an early hour for the country."
Unsatisfactory: - "We started early at an hour for the country." "Early at an hour we started for the country." "We started early for the country."
Half credit: - "For the country at an early hour we started." "For the country we started at an early hour."
(b) Satisfactory: - "I asked my teacher to correct my paper.-'
Unsatisfactory: - "My teacher asked to correct my paper." "To correct my paper I asked my teacher."
Half credit: - "My teacher I asked to correct my paper."
(c) Satisfactory: - "A good dog defends his master bravely." "A good dog bravely defends his master."
Unsatisfactory: - "A dog defends his master bravely." "A bravely dog defends his master." "A good dog defends his bravely master." "A good brave dog defends his master."
Half credit: - "A dog defends his good master bravely." "A dog bravely defends his good master." "A good master bravely defends his dog."