Bathing

A new-born child should be bathed only in warm water, in a warm room. From 950 to 900 should be the temperature of its bath ; the thermometer had better be used, as the touch is. so uncertain. As it gets older, at least if it seems" hearty," the water may be allowed gradually to go down to 85° ; or, in warm weather, even 8o°. The best test of its not being too cool, is, the infant being rosy and merry after the bath. A child should like its bath, if it is rightly managed ; never startling it with a sudden plunge, but accustoming it to it by degrees. A mother had better bathe her own baby, if she is well and strong enough to do so.

One error especially to be avoided is, letting a child, once wet all over, sit half in and half out of the water ; being thus chilled by evaporation from the uncovered part of the body.

During our hottest weather, when the thermometer ranges between 940 and 100, even a young infant may profit by a cool bath, say at 75° or 700 but then it must be a short-time bath also. The cooler, the shorter the time of immersion.

Much soap does not need to be used in bathing infants. If the child be bathed daily, it needs (after its first thorough cleansing) only an occasional employment, unless about the thighs, of a little of the best castile soap. Salt may be added to the bath if the child is weakly, for its tonic effect. In sickness, warm or hot baths may be of great service.

Exercise

After the first few months, a babe should be allowed and encouraged to sprawl; first on a wide bed, being watched that it does not fall off; afterwards on a carpeted floor, or a rug. This will spread its chest, and bring most of its muscles into play. Thus it will gain strength, and get ready, in due time {don't hurry it) to stand up and walk. Crawling comes first, according to the true nature of bodily development,

Airing

Very soon every baby ought to begin to be taken out in fine weather. In summer, no matter how soon ; in winter, it requires care about keeping it warm, of course. But quite young infants may be, with proper out-of-door clothing, accustomed to being taken out into the sunshine and air every fine day.

A misery ought to be always a sunny and well-aired room. As already said, infants suffer more harm from bad air than grown people do. Scarlet fever, measles, whooping-cough, diphtheria, and all other diseases are commonly worst, killing the most children, in tenement-houses ; and, elsewhere, in crowded alleys, where people live too close together and do not have fresh, pure air to breathe.