While bleeding from any part of the body is often an important symptom, it needs to be interpreted with care. Its consequence depends greatly on its quantity and the source from which the blood comes.

Thus, in bleeding at the nose, the flow of blood may possibly result from either of the following causes : a severe blow; congestion (fullness of blood) simply in the membranes of the nose; congestion of the brain (to which the bleeding may give advantageous relief); early stage of typhoid fever; suppressed men-struation (monthly discharge) of which it in an alternative.

Spitting of blood may come from hemorrhage of the gums, the back of the nostrils, throat, windpipe (bronchial tubes), lungs, or stomach.

If from the stomach, it is preceded by nausea, and is vomited. When from the lungs or bronchial tubes, it is coughed up instead.

Hemorrhage from the lungs {hemoptysis) may depend upon congestion (over-fulness of blood) of the lungs ; heart disease, tubercular consumption, suppressed menstruation, of which it may, occasionally, be an alternative or substitute; an injury, as a broken rib, wound of the lung, etc.; rupture of an aneurism of the aorta.

Vomiting of Blood may be one of the symptoms occurring in hysterical women ; or it may result from ulcer, or cancer of the stomach ; or it may be (as above) substitutive or vicarious of absent menstruation.

Uterine hemorrhage (other than the natural monthly flow) may come from congestion of the womb, or its ulceration, or cancer. During pregnancy it threatens miscarriage, or results from misplacement of the placenta (after-birth).

Hemorrhage from the bowels may be connected with piles (hemorrhoids), dysentery, ulceration of the bowels, cancer, rupture of an abdominal aneurism, typhoid, malarial, or yellow fever, or vicairous menstruation.

Hematuria (bloody urine) may follow a mechanical injury, inflammation of the kidneys, stone in the bladder, or a bad state of things in cases of scarlet fever.