Emaciation (wasting) is seen generally in those long sick. Sometimes it occurs rapidly, as in severe diarrhoea, or in the summer complaint of children.
Flushed, in fever, early stage of apoplexy, or intoxication.
Cheeks brightly flushed, in hectic fever of consumptives.
Purple or livid, in typhoid or typhus fever.
Sallow, in chlorosis, dyspepsia, and cancer.
Blue, in the collapse of cholera, and cyanosis.
Black, almost, in suffocation from any cause.
Eruptions upon the skin belong to certain other diseases.
Symptoms Presented by the Mouth, etc.
The tongue is pale, in anaemic persons ; red in scarlet fever, inflamed mouth, and sometimes when the stomach is inflamed (gastritis) ; furred, in indigestion, and very often in fever; brown, or black, cracked and fissured, in low fevers, as typhoid or typhus. It is pushed out with difficulty in low fevers, and after an apoplectic attack ; going to one side, in paralysis affecting one side only.
The teeth are covered with thick brown stuff Called "sordes" in low febrile states. They are loosened, sometimes, by severe salivation, from large doses of mercury - (not now given by regular physicians).
The gums are swollen, soft, and spongy, and disposed to bleed easily in scurvy. A blue line along the gums is observed in lead-poisoning ; a red line, occasionally, in advancing consumption. Swelling and sore-ness of the gums, with tenderness of the teeth and a " coppery " taste in the mouth, are signs of mercurial salivation.
Increase of saliva gives the name to this affection, once not uncommon in medical practice. Iodide of potassium, taken medicinally, will sometimes salivate. Large doses of jaborandi, or its active principle, pilocarpin, generally does so.