Symptoms connected with this excretion are: strangury (difficult urination), incontinence of urine (want of control, especially during sleep), retention, suppression, and excess of the secretion (diabetes), and unhealthy character of the urine passed.

Strangury sometimes follows the application of a fly (cantharides) blister. Now and then it is observed in children from the irritation of seat-worms in the lower bowel; and in young infants, owing to an irritating quality of the urine; which, in such a case, is pretty sure to be scanty and high colored.

Nightly incontinence of urine is quite common in children, sometimes up to their " teens." Dribbling while awake shows a much greater loss of power over the bladder. This is seen in many cases of injury or serious disease of the spinal marrow.

Retention of urine may be a very distressing symptom. Men suffer it who have " stricture " of the urethra (outlet tube from the bladder). Nervous disturbance may cause it in either sex, but especially often in hysterical women. After child-birth it follows pressure upon the neck of the bladder. In low fevers, as typhus or typhoid, it results from general debility. Its probability should always be remembered in such cases, as the patient may be " out of his mind " and so may give no account of it. We should make sure, in a fever case (or, indeed, in any other illness), how much and how often water is passed. If the quantity is certainly small, it is necessary to examine the abdomen as its lowest part, over the bladder. When urine is retained, there will be a firm swelling at the lowest part of the belly, just in front, above the bony ridge of the pelvis; and, on tapping there with a finger, a dull sound will be made. If the bladder be empty, the sound will be rather hollow.

In some cases of spine disease, there is retention instead of incontinence of urine. This symptom, however produced, often calls for relief by the use of a tube introduced through the urethra into the bladder, called a catheter. It is short and almost straight for the female; longer and curved (if of metal or firm rubber) for the male subject.

Suppression of urine is always a bad sign, in any case of disease. It is sometimes met with in low fevers, epidemic cholera, bad cases of scarlet fever, and long standing cases of disease of the kidneys. Urĉmia (blood poisoning with materials of urine) follows it, and usually ends life in a few days at most.

Excess of urinary discharge is called by physicians diabetes. It occurs not unfrequently, for a time, after checking of perspiration by exposure to cold and with hysterical or other nervous persons.