Difficulty of swallowing may result from inflammation of the tonsils or gullet (pharynx); spasmodic closure of the throat; permanent narrowing or stricture of the pharynx or lower gullet (oesophagus); obstruction, as from a bone, etc.; paralysis, as after diphtheria, or extreme weakness, in the dying state.

Thirst is excessive in two opposite conditions: high fever and low collapse.