A diminutive of faenum, hay ; because when dried, it is preserved ; or quasi faenum ocu-lorum, the hay or herb good for the sight. Fennel. Wine impregnated with it is called marathrites.
Foeniculum vulgark, faeniculum Germanicum, ma-rathrum, common fincle, or fennel ; Anethum faenicu-lum Lin. Sp. Pl. 377.
This plant is so common that a description is unnecessary : its seeds are small, and of a blackish brown The plant is perennial, native in the southern parts of Europe, but thrives in our gardens; supposed to be the marathron of the Greeks, highly esteemed among them for promoting the secretion of milk. The experience of Bergius seems to confirm this opinion.
The seeds are more warm and pungent, but not so pleasing, as those of the sweet kind. They are stomachic and carminative, commended against nauseas and loathing ; and if eaten in the morning fasting, supposed to help the sight. Dill, anise, and carraway, are, however, allowed to be superior in these respects.
The leaves have the same flavour with the seeds, and smell stronger, but to the taste are weaker and less agreeable. They impregnate water sufficiently with their virtues by distillation, and by the same process afford a considerable quantity of essential oil. Rectified spirit of wine is rendered agreeably aromatic by them, and the extract retains the whole strength after evaporation.
The roots, taken up in spring, have a pleasant sweet taste, are slightly aromatic, and are ranked amongst the aperient roots.
Foeniculum dulce. Sweet fennel. This variety of the anethum foeniculum, var. α is annual, a native of warm climes, and cultivated in gardens. The seeds are larger, paler, and sweeter than those of the former sort; contain a gross oil, easily obtained by pressure, and have been esteemed pectoral and diuretic : when freed from the essential oil, they are perfectly insipid. The London college directs us to distil a simple water from the seeds, and from a pound to draw off a gallon; which is said to be diuretic and carminative. See Lewis's Materia Med. Neumann's Chem. Works.
Foeniculum Alpinum. See Meum. Foeniculum annum. See Ammi verum. Foeniculum erraticum. See Saxifraga Angli-oa.
Foeniculum marinum majus et minus. See Crith-mum.
Foeniculum orientale. See Cuminum.
Foeniculum porcinum. See Peucedasum.
Foeniculum sinense. See Anisum Indicum.
Foeniculum sylvestre. See Meum latifolium adulterinum.
Foeniculum tortuosum. See Seseli Massiliense.