When civilizations were primitive and populations sparse organization into communities was on simple lines, but with the increased production of food and the resulting density of population, it has become extremely complex. We must, then, take up the natural laws causing the evolution of modern society, as a step toward explaining our relations to other nations and to the peoples of the tropics, and the interrelations among ourselves.

In the evolution of the multicellular organism there are two forces at work: one is centripetal drawing the organism together, by taking something away from each cell to secure union, and the other is centrifugal, resisting such deprivation of an individual's powers, and is based on the cell's ability to struggle for existence at the expense of all competitors - an ability inherited from an immensely long line of successful ancestors. The former is a centralizing force building up an organization, the latter a decentralizing one preserving the health and vigor of the units - and both are necessary.

Every organization advances along a line of least resistance resulting from the combination of these two forces. The first tends to subordinate the individual and render him a dependent specialist; the other tends to exalt the individual and continue his personal independence. Even the organization of the modern baseball team has taken these lines. Formerly, players rotated in position, and there was little "team work." Such a game disappeared before the modern one in which "team work" has been built up by specialist players, who are worthless out of their respective positions, and who play into each other's hands. As soon as the American colonies attained then" independence they found themselves to be a "weak team," with no organization, and the confederation failed. The people created a new organism which was given powers taken from the units. Immediately the citizens clustered into two groups, as they felt themselves guided by one or the other of the two forces. One set, the nationalists, exerted themselves to build up the organization; the other, the republicans, tried to keep the units strong. Hence, the two parties existed at once because we might say they preexisted, for they represent eternal natural laws. Political parties exist to-day in their original positions, but the nationalists call themselves republicans, and the former republicans have more appropriately called themselves democrats. Writers have failed to realize that it is biological law which causes political parties to exist. It deserves investigation from this standpoint, for the attitude of the two main parties in the United States toward the topics here discussed is identically the same as the attitude of political parties in other civilized nations toward similar questions in their own country.