A general survey of ancient human currents shows that they must have flowed from the two centers of origin, in Central Asia and Central Europe respectively. The Western stock began to spread as soon as the ice melted sufficiently to allow escape over the Alps and other mountains to the south - the ice which had imprisoned it and compelled its evolution. Prior to this ice age, some of the apes could migrate and their modified descendants - the chimpanzee and gorilla - exist in Africa still, having undergone but little, if any, evolution in intelligence, though undoubtedly vastly modified in physique to suit new conditions. The next higher type which arose during the imprisonment of the anthropoids in the ice age, was the connecting link, or ape-man (pithecanthropus). It has left no descendants in Africa for none could get there. Perhaps some fossils of this type might be found in Europe eventually, but none have thus far turned up. The Eastern race has left one fossil, found in Java.*
* The latest governmental statistics available are for the year 1905, and show the following outflowing stream of humanity: Italy, 459,000; Russia, 197,000; the United Kingdom, 262,000; Austria-Hungary, 187,000 (of whom 63,000 were Hungarians); Spain, 147,000; Sweden, 36,000; Portugal, 33,000; Germany, 27,000; Norway, 25,000; France, 15,000; Denmark, 8,000; Belgium, 5,000; Holland, 5,000; Switzerland, 4,000.
* Science, April 26, 1907.
The first European emigrants were probably the ancestors of the pygmies of Africa, * A later type may have gone as far as Australia and New Guinea. Successive later and higher waves entered Africa, forcing earlier arrivals from the best hunting lands, so that at one time Egypt and all Northern Africa were in the paleolithic stage, precisely the same as that stage of the home country.
Dr. Flinders Petrie*¡ states of the Egyptians of the earliest civilization, prior to 4,700 B.C., "They appear to have been mainly North African tribes of European type." Their pottery was like that of the present Kabyles of the Algerian Mountains. King Marenptah (son of Rameses) tells of Libyans of Northern Africa invading Egypt.
* Since the above paragraph was written an alleged prehuman specimen, found in glacial gravels at Chapelle aux Saints, France, was described December 14, 1908, to the Paris Academy of Sciences, by Professor Edmond Perrier. The physical type is decided simian, but the brain is large enough to be called human, the combination we would expect. If this find proves to be really prehuman it confirms the growing impression that Europe was the cradle of the Eurafrican race. - Science, January 1, 1909.
* Sir Harry H. Johnston, describing the ape-like dwarfs of the Congo, the northern origin of anthropoids and man, and their migration into the protecting tropical jungle, says: "The anthropoid apes had, no doubt, been driven away from western Asia and southern Europe, by their successful compeer and offshoot-man, who can have been the only serious enemies of these ancestors of the gorilla, chimpanzee and orang-outang. Some long time after the scared chimpanzees and gorillas had found a secure refuge in the dense woods of west central Africa, the earliest types of humanity who had entered the dark continent were also pushed toward this gloomy forest by the inroads of superior tribes, and some of their descendants exist there at the present day." He assumes that they originated in southern Asia after the pithecanthropus, and wandered to the Pacific Islands where specimens still remain, some going west to Africa. But there is evidence that the Asiatic negrittoes are different from the African and had an eastern origin. "It is just possible that this (African) type of pygmy negro which survives to-day in the recesses of inner Africa, may even have overspread Europe in remote times." "Fossil remains in Sicily, Sardinia, and the Pyrenees would seem to indicate the existence in Mediterranean Europe at one time of a negritto type, and a rude statuette found in the Pyrenees and attributed to the stone age, would seem to show that these pygmies lingered on long after the invasion of the country by superior races," that is, lingered in the south until exterminated by later brainier arrivals from the north.
*¡ Smithsonian Report, 1897.
By such migrations, the Western type of primitive man slowly spread over the whole of Europe and Africa, and its descendants are now called the Eurafrican race. From fossil remains and from a study of the lowest forms which are now found in Africa, there is no doubt that this primitive man of Europe was a rather short, frail brunet, with a long face and head quite similar indeed to the types now clustered around the Mediterranean basin and grouped together as the Mediterranean race. His remains are found in every part of Europe from Russia to England, and constitute the oldest evidence of humanity in this part of the world.
As the ice cap, which covered Northwestern Europe, retreated, man followed, from the constant internal pressure which forced him to spread, but wherever he migrated he changed his physical characteristics to fit him for survival - for instance, becoming black in the tropics to protect him from light, but assuming lighter complexions in darker countries. Consequently there is a perfect gradation of forms from the blackest negro to the whitest Scandinavian. By the ordinary law of the survival of the fittest he became tall in some places and short in others, and gradually assumed the other characters such as we find them to-day. Yet the one character of greater intelligence in the north, due to increasing size of the brain in the severe struggle for existence, must be constantly kept in mind, for it is the key to the explanation of those wonderful later migrations from the north which have so profoundly influenced the history of the world.