From the Declaration of Independence to the proclamation of America's entrance into the World War, there have been gradually evolving certain principles which Americans consider fundamental to our developing democracy. Whenever the issue of Negro welfare has been squarely faced in its relation to these principles, white Americans have acceded to the attitude that they should accord to Negro Americans a share in the rights based upon these fundamental principles. Professing such principles, they have been led by a strong urge for consistency to the view that these principles must apply to all or they are true for none. Among the principles so regarded in America are equality of all citizens before the law, freedom of assembly, freedom of speech, the right to trial by a jury of peers, the right to vote, and freedom of movement from place to place. Abraham Lincoln, to express the relation of the races to the welfare of the nation, quoted, "A house divided against itself cannot stand," applying the axiom to mean that unless the freedom of white America was extended to the black part of the nation, liberty for the white part would not be secure. During the years that have followed, this view has gained larger and larger place in the settlement of the relations of the two races in industry, in education, in government, and in other phases of our common life. Although sometimes in the minority, there has been, in season and out, a body of Americans who have labored to keep this view and attitude before the nation. They have urged that the general welfare cannot be attained for some unless its benefits and responsibilities are shared by all.

1 Brawley, B. G., work cited, pp. 24-31.

2 Stephenson, Gilbert T., Race Distinctions in American Law, pp. 78-89.

The White Race And The Interracial Mind

With such feelings and attitudes about their own race, and ways of acting toward the Negro race, white Americans face the future and seek world leadership, economic, political, and spiritual. As a part of the movement for world leadership, a larger appreciation of other races has been developing slowly but surely in the minds of many Americans. The presence of the Japanese and Chinese at the Washington Conference on Limitation of Armament, sharing rights and responsibilities with other races, was a step toward that appreciation of other peoples by the white race, which is becoming the groundwork of goodwill for the future peace and prosperity of the world. The relation of Negro and white Americans is being affected by these world movements.

The idea that the American Negro is a person and an end in himself, to be educated and developed and to become a participant in all that makes life and liberty glorious in America will, although gradually, replace the idea of the Negro as only a servant. One step toward this end is the growing appreciation and recognition of the qualities of mind and heart which the Negro people have shown and which, when further developed, will make them a greater asset to America. In agriculture and industry the human elements which include the Negro workers are gaining the front of the stage. In the field of government, self-determination, now a matter of discussion, is gradually becoming a principle of action applied to non-white groups and races. As white men learn by experience, - as in the case of the results of equality for women, - the fears of harmful effects resulting from their change of ways and attitude toward Negroes begin to disappear. Then the idea of the interdependence of all men, the weak and the strong, begins to penetrate the mind of all. The principle of the Golden Rule is becoming a code of practical, everyday affairs, the wild tongues of boasting and prejudice are being silenced, and there is developing a revaluation of the Divine requirement to do justly and to love mercy.