Passing on to the Kosar they are referred to as entering the country of Tulu by defeating Nannan and killing his state elephant.1 Nannan's territory included in it both Tulu2 and Konkan (Konkanam).3 These Kosar are under reference in Aham 196 as having put out the eyes of the father of a lady Anni Gnimili, and to have been destroyed at her instance by two chieftains Kurumbian and Tidiyan.4 They are found mentioned as Kongi]am-Kosar in the Silappadhikaram, and get themselves associated with the Kongu country (Salem and Coimbatore districts). One clan of them get associated with Podiyal Hill and the tribe that settled there is known as Nallur Kosar.5 In almost the same terms Mamulanar describes the Kosar winning a victory against their enemies at Podiyil hill, and as Mohur declined to submit to them the Mauryas advanced south.6 The other poets such as Marudan-llanagan, Kalladanar, Narkirar and Aiyur Mudavanar make mention of these Kosar also. Of these the first and the

fourth associate the Kosar with Sellur. It seems to have been a place in the Chola country.1 Narklrar's reference is to a Chola having made an effort to conquer their territory. Kalla-danar's reference is to their having protected on one occasion the chieftain Ahdeai. They therefore seem to have been a well-known tribe of people, foreigners to the Tamil country, who settled in various localities ultimately and came to be known as Nalur Kos'ar, meaning the Kosar that settled in four places, if the particular reading of the first word is correct. Who were these Kosar and what was their connection with the Mauryas? The suggestion was made elsewhere 2 that these may be a tribe of people the same as the Kosakara of the Ramayana, and possibly the Khasas who led the advanced part of the army that marched upon Patalipura in favour of Chandragupta according to Mudrarakshasa. They were a people who have had a great reputation in the south as warriors and are described invariably as people who kept their word. Kari-Kannan of Kaveripattanam refers to the practice of the younger members of this tribe learning the use of weapons by hurling them against a pillar made of the wood of the Murungai3 (Ery-thrina Indica) tree. The four places of their establishment, if the reading Nalur is not a asoka's southern limit of empire 29 corruption for Nallur,1 would be the Nallur near Podiyil hill, Sellur probably in the Chola Country on the east coast2; Pali in the Chera country wherefrom they were dislodged by the Cholas; and Kongu south east from this territory. The incidental details brought together from various authors in regard to this particular race of people make a Mauryan effort at the conquest of the south clearly a historical fact.

1 Paranar in Kurumtogai 73.

2 Mamulanar in Aham 15.

3 Palai-padiya-Pernm-Kadungo in Narrinai 491.

4 Paranar in Aham 196-262.

5 Kurumitogai; Perum-Kadungo.

6 Aham 251 .

1 Aham 90 and 220.

2 Beginnings of South Indian History, pp. 92-95. 3 Puram., 169.