Another tribe of people are described almost in the same terms as these Vadukar. They are called Malavar in Tamil, who suffered a defeat at the hands of Neduvel Avi at Podini (Palnis).1 They were habitually resident in forests and lived by way-laying travellers. They worshipped Nadu-kal2 (stones planted in honour of warriors that fell in battle), and offered sacrifices to them. These are again referred to as uneducated and with raised bows, and entering their country language changed.3 The forest ways infested by these Malavar, says Mamulanar, were safe as at the time they happened to be under the protection of Kuttuvan4 (Chera ruler). In another connection the same author refers to the subjugation of these Malavar by Pulli of Vengadam.5 This series of references to the Vadukar and Malavar, and their being described in almost identical terms would lead to the inference either that the Vadukar and the Malavar were the same tribe of people, or were at any rate of very similar habits and language. It was already pointed out that this term Vadukar, on the analogy of the Kanarese Badaga, might be interpreted as northerners. They were northerners to the Tamil in the purely geographical sense; but in the sense of northern Aryas, the term used is Vadavar, the grammatically correct form in Tamil.

1 Aham 253. Sec Aham. 115, ]. 5, for Mamulanar's reference to Erumai as the chieftain of Kudanadu.

2 Idaiyan Sendan Korran. in Aham 375. 3 Aham 281.

1 Mamulanar in Aham 1.

2 Ammuvan in Aham 35; also Kural verse 771.

3 Mamulanar, Aham 127.

4 Aham 91. 5 Aham 61.