This section is from the book "American Plumbing Practice", by The Engineering Record. Also available from Amazon: Plumbing: A working manual of American plumbing practice.
The cold-water supply for the butler's pantry is received under street pressure from the cellar filter, and is refiltered through Pasteur filters conveniently placed in a cupboard under a dresser in the balcony or gallery of the butler's pantry. Figure 16 shows the arrangement of the two separate and independent filters, each about 15x18 inches high, and having a rated capacity of 50 gallons per hour. They are sup. plied through a ¾ inch pipe, and deliver through a ball cock into a rectangular porcelain-lined tank about 36x18 inches and 24 inches high, with a 1¼ -inch overflow pipe emptying into a trapped sink that also receives the discharge from the drip pipe of the lead safe. The dotted lines in the illustration indicate the position of the inclosing cabinet-work which forms below, a table and cupboard with sliding doors and top, and is a glass case above, thus inclosing and protecting the filters and tank, while leaving them perfectly accessible.
There are numerous washbowls, sinks, toilet, bath, and dressing rooms throughout the house that are very completely and carefully fitted up. The fixtures designed for the use of the family and guests are remarkably elegant and costly. Those in the boudoir bathrooms are luxurious, with specially designed rich metal-work and large carved bathtubs hollowed out of solid blocks of marble, but there are no remarkable features in the mechanical details or in the arrangement and system of piping and connections.
The general methods of arrangement and connection and exposed valves and piping are shown in Figs. 17 and 18, which are typical of the distribution of street and tank pressure, hot and cold water, position of fixtures, etc. Figure 17 shows the interior of the maid's closet and slopsink on the third floor. Valves V V V V are introduced instead of a cut-off to utilize street or tank pressure at will. Offsets are made by one-quarter and one-eighth L fittings. All metal-work is heavily plated. The sink is porcelain, and the floors and walls are covered with marble or white ceramic tiles.
Figure 18 shows the piping in the third-story family bathroom, the work being similar to that shown in Fig. 17.
Figures 19 and 20 show the method adopted for the protection of walls and ceilings from any possible leakage in the pipelines, which, in the remote contingency of its occurrence, would be caught in the sealed boxes and discharged by their waste pipes through numbered flap valves into cellar sinks, where the drip would be immediately evident, and would be readily identified so as to indicate the line requiring repairs.
All horizontal water pipes are run beneath the floors and over the ceilings in hermetically sealed boxes as shown in Fig. 19, about 6 inches deep and 18 inches wide, made of 1-inch boards. From the boards simple troughs were first constructed as shown at B, with beveled upper edges. Over these the 12ounce copper lining was folded and nailed. The joints at the ends of each section were locked and soldered, and the ends soldered tightly to make a water-tight receptacle. Then at intervals transverse copper ridges or chairs E E, etc. were soldered to the bottom so as to form supports, elevating the pipes about 3 inches from the bottom. Where the pipes enter the box, vertical sleeves or thimbles T pierce the bottom of the box (to which they are soldered tightly), and extended up to the tops of the chairs so as to allow the pipes to enter freely and expand and contract without any danger of leakage, even if the box should become filled with water nearly 3 inches deep. Each box, however, is provided with a waste pipe P, through which any leakage would be carred directly to a slopsink in the cellar without any opportunity to collect in the boxes. After the pipes are laid in them the boxes have cleats C C nailed along each side, and the beveled cover piece, also lined on the bottom and ridges with 12-ounce copper nailed on, is supported on the cleats, and the V-shaped space between the beveled edges is filled with a slightly rounded wiped joint that completes the sealing of that portion of the pipes. The vertical sections of them are run through somewhat different vertical ducts, as shown in Fig. 20. These ducts, having to carry 3-inch pump and tank risers, also are larger than the horizontal ones, and are about 30 inches wide and 6 or 7 inches deep. They consist of a wooden trough nailed vertically to the wall and lined with 12-ounce sheet copper, bent at the edges as shown in the transverse detail, and provided with corresponding cover sheets. The pipes are run in the open box and secured by ordinary jointed saddle hangers H H, etc., which were screwed into the wood and white-leaded and tightly drawn up to the copper lining. Then the copper pieces, in convenient sections, slipped into place, their bends engaging and locking with those of the lining at A and B, and turned up against the outside of the duct and finally flattened tightly there, but not soldered. The different sections of the cover sheets were soldered together, and the bottoms of the ducts sealed and provided with waste pipes to the drip sink. The pipes are thus left practically inaccessible and most carefully provided against possibility of doing damage by leaking.