"Water Main. - From the water main in Broad Street run a 1 1/2-inch extra-heavy galvanized-iron service pipe into the cellar through the front foundation wall. Coat this pipe with a heavy covering of pitch tar, or paint to prevent corrosion. Secure and pay for a l 1/4-inch tapping to the water main. Connect the galvanized service pipe to the corporation cock with a l 1/4-inch double extra-strong lead pipe and brass solder nipple connections. Locate a ground-key stop cock and a cast-iron curb box at the curb. Bury the service pipe line at least 3 feet below the ground and finish with 1 1/4-inch plugged T-fitting inside of cellar wall. At the house side of the T-fitting screw a l 1/2-inch brass body gate valve with an emptying cock on the house side of the valve. On the house side of this emptying cock place a 1 1/2-inch No Leak pressure-regulating valve. Attach a suitable pressure gauge on the house side of the pressure-regulating valve and set the valve so that it will hold up 40 pounds per square inch pressure in the building, independent of the street variations. From the street side of the pressure-regulating valve take off a 3/4-inch galvanized iron pipe connection, run same to supply a 3/4-inch hose cock, to be located where directed by the architect for lawn-sprinkling purposes, and place a 3/4-inch roundway ground key stop and waste cock on this line in the cellar. Continue from the pressure-regulating valve with a l 1/4-inch galvanized iron water pipe to the several risers. Leave a plugged T-fitting where directed by the architect to supply a steam boiler in the future."

The foregoing imaginary specification is faulty in many ways. In the first place, it starts in to describe the run of the pipe, then swings to the kind of pipe to be used, goes back to the run, then switches off into covering the pipe. Making another start, it takes up permits and payments for tapping, follows with description of method and materials for connection, then jumps to the location of a stop cock and box. Back it goes to the run and depth of the pipe, and again comes back to valves and drip cocks. Next comes a pressure-reducing apparatus, then a pressure gauge, followed by adjustment of the pressure regulator. Back goes the specification to the run of the pipe, which is left indefinite; next to stop cock, then off to the run of pipe again. Such a specification is not only-hard to write and difficult to follow, but is lacking in clearness, simplicity and conciseness. Besides the defects pointed out, the specification is open to the further objection that in parts it is indefinite. A |-inch iron pipe is to be run to supply a 1-inch hose bibb "to be located where directed by the architect." That is an uncertainty which can always be avoided by deciding definitely at the time the specifications are written at what point the hose bibb, or whatever other part it may be, will be located, and incorporating the information in the specifications. Not having been stated in the specifications or shown on the plans, the estimator will have to allow the greatest possible run in order to protect himself, and an additional allowance for time in waiting for a decision or hunting the architect for information. In like manner, the location of the outlet for the boiler could and should have been determined upon and the location shown on the plans.

Much of the confusion in specifications of this character can be avoided by showing the water-supply system on the plans. When this is done, the runs and sizes can be marked thereon and can then be omitted from the specifications. If this be done in the fore-going example, it will simplify matters to such an extent that the kind of pipe, connection to the main, valves and pressure-reducing outfit are all that will have had to be covered separately by the specification; the securing of permits and payment for permits and taps having been taken care of in the general condition, "'Permits and Plumbing Laws." The whole section describing the run of the service pipe and connections can then be specified in something like the following manner: