The plumbing for a residence, shown in Plate 32, shows the use of various special waste and vent fittings, which are now coming into use extensively on the best class of work. A special advantage gained in their use is that fixture traps may be easily provided with a continuous vent. In previous plates the running of continuous vents by the use of common fittings is to be seen. The use of special fittings often saves the making of one or more joints. In Plate 32 all the fixtures are supplied with continuous vents with the exception of the bath and lavatory in the bath room, and the refrigerator drip sink. It is very rare that a fixture is so located, however, that, by the use of some one of the numerous special fittings or common fittings, it cannot be vented on the continuous principle. It will be noted that sizes of all pipes are given.
Plate XXXII. Plumbing For Residences - Use Of Special Fittings - Brass Piping
For the ordinary residence, double house, two- and three-flat houses, and much other work, a 4-in. house drain and main stack is large enough for the work required of them. It is poor policy in constructing the house drain or the house sewer, or any horizontal drainage pipe, to use a pipe of larger size than is necessary, for it is much better to have the sewage which is flowing through a horizontal line fill the pipe well up on its sides than to have the pipe so large that the sewage flows in a thin stream at the bottom of it. In the latter case, heavy sewage is more liable to lodge in the pipe, while the use of a smaller pipe would have resulted in sufficient scouring action to carry it along through the pipe. It will be noticed that in Plate 32 the laundry tubs are located in the cellar. This is a very common practice. A strong point against it, however, is that, but for placing this fixture in the cellar, the house drain might be run overhead and in sight, which is always preferable to burying it underground.
On high-grade work, such as is to be found in residences, apartment buildings. etc., brass piping is now largely used for waste and vent work.
The proper weights of brass pipe are to be found in the following table:
Nominal Diameter of Pipe
Weight per Foot
1 1/2 in.. .
... 2.84 lbs.
... 3.82 "
2 1/2 " ...
... 6.08 "
... 7.92 "
3 1/2 " ...
• • 9.54 "
Nominal Diameter of Pipe
Weight per Foot
4 in... .
. . 11.29 lbs.
.. 13.08 "
•• 15.37 "
Brass fittings used on drainage work should be cast, and of extra heavy weight, and of recessed pattern, similar to cast-iron recessed drainage fittings, as illustrated in Plate 44.
With the various appliances now on the market, there is absolutely no excuse for using on brass and nickel pipes the tools designed for use on wrought-iron pipes. These appliances include brass pipe vises and wrenches of various makes, the use of which avoids all scratching of pipe and tubing, and the crushing of the latter resulting from the use of common vises and pipe wrenches.
Brass pipe work should always be put together with threaded connections of iron-pipe size, but never with slip joints and couplings.
It often happens, both on supply and drainage work, that it is necessary or desirable to make a bend in the pipe rather than to use an elbow. The following is a practical method of performing this work, and the result, when the work is properly done, is a perfect bend.
First fill the pipe to be bent with sand, and securely plug each end. Set the pipe on the work bench, with the point to be bent overhanging. Place a plumber's furnace under the pipe, so that the flame heats the pipe at the bending point. To confine the heat, cover this part of the pipe with a piece of sheet iron, or a shovel, if more convenient. See to it that the pipe does not become overheated.
When it becomes sufficiently hot, the weight of the overhanging pipe will cause it to bend. With care and a little experience, sharp right-angle bends can be easily and neatly made in this manner.
When heated, brass becomes very brittle, and it should not be removed, therefore, until somewhat cooled.
If the overhanging end is too short to provide sufficient weight to cause the pipe to bend, a weight may be attached to the pipe.