Copper Galv.

Boiler Stands Tubes Valves

Sed. Cocks House Tank Ball Cock and Valve

Pantry Sinks

Pantry Cocks Plugs, Chain, Stays

Traps Ferrules

Water Closets

Tanks Tank Boards Seats

Brackets Chain & Pull Lead Bends

N. P. Flush & Supply Pipes N. P. Flanges

Ball Cock & Valve Ferrules

Clamps Bolts Floor Flanges Floor Slabs

Local Vent & Fittings 2" 3" 4"

Bath Tubs

Bath Cocks Plug & Chain N. P. Supplies

Waste & Overflow N. P. Valves N. P. Flanges

Traps Ferrules

Lavatories

Bowls Cocks Brackets Plugs

Chain & Stays Clamps Traps Ferrules

Gaskets N. P. Supplies N. P. Wastes

N. P. Traps N. P. Flanges N. P. Valves Marble

Urinals

N. P. Flush Pipes Valves Tanks Cocks

Traps Ferrules Marble Slate

Slop Sinks Tanks Cocks Traps Ferrules

Miscellaneous

Pumps

Screws

Tile Pipe & F't'gs

Carfare

Labor

Air Chambers

Putty

Carpenter

Board

Days, Plumber

Valves Plaster Paris Excavating Fr't & Cartage Helper

Total

Add for Expense %

" " Profit %

Total Estimate

There are several features connected with estimate sheets that are worth mentioning.

In the estimate sheet shown, for instance, such items as traps, ferrules, bibbs, etc., are to be found under each fixture. Some may prefer to have such items lumped, rather than scattered, but in presenting in connection with each fixture the items that are needed in the installation of that fixture there is possibly less danger of omissions.

Under brass work, however, such items as brass ferrules and valves are given, although appearing under the different fixtures. This is necessary, as such material as ferrules and valves may be used for purposes not identified with any particular fixture. Such an item as lead pipe is more conveniently and accurately figured, and with less labor, in the lump than under respective fixtures.

Before being able to figure material accurately and intelligently, it is necessary to have a slight understanding at least of architects' plans.

The term " plan " is used in general to designate all architects' drawings. Technically, however, a plan is a view looking down onto an object, and an elevation is a view looking at the object from the front or the side.

In the case of the floor plans, they show locations of fixtures and pipes, and cellar plans show horizontal measurements of soil piping, water piping, etc.

The front or side elevation of the building, on the other hand, shows the distances between floors, from which can be estimated the heights of the vertical lines of pipe.

Architects' plans are never drawn full size, but always at some standard scale, usually 1/4 in. to the foot for small buildings and 1/8 in. to the foot for large buildings.

In order to measure piping from such a drawing, it is necessary to understand how to use a scale. In the work of an architect or engineer, where the object of which drawings are made, is very large, it is necessary to show the object on a smaller scale. If the scale is 1/4 in. to the foot, a quarter inch measured on any of the drawings represents one foot in the actual work itself, and if the scale is 1/8 in. to the foot, any measurement of 1/8 in. represents one foot in the actual work.

The general custom in estimating material is to estimate the soil piping first, and by this is meant the house drain and all its connections, the stacks and their main vent lines.

The cellar plan (see Plate 31) is first referred to, and the lengths of the several sizes of horizontal piping measured at the proper scale.

If Plate 31 is drawn at a scale of 1/8 in. to the foot, the straight run from outside the cellar wall to the cleanout at the end will be found to be 5 5/8 in., representing 45 ft. of 4-in. pipe.

In the same way the branches, fresh-air inlet, etc., are estimated, the measurements in ordinary work being made without reference to the space taken up by fittings; that is, measurements for straight pipe are taken without deducting anything for fittings.

The excess measurement thus obtained will make a due allowance for loss in cutting lengths of pipe. If, however, fittings are very close together, as in the use of a number of branch fittings for a line of water closets, this method of measuring may be modified. Attention is next directed to the elevation of the building being figured, in order to estimate the lengths of straight pipe in the vertical main lines. The points to be considered may be observed from Plate 33, which shows an elevation of a plumbing system.

The vertical lengths may be found by measuring on the elevation the distance from the cellar bottom to a point usually 2 ft. above the roof.

If the roof is flat, these lengths will be the same, but in the case of pitched roofs, reference to either the front or side elevation will show at what point the stack passes through, thus enabling the estimator to find its length.

The main vertical vent lines, vertical rain-leader connections, the vertical part of the fresh-air inlet, and other vertical lines should next be measured, and the total lengths of each size of pipe inserted in the estimate.

It is a very good plan to divide each amount of soil pipe, if of cast iron, between single- and double-hub pipe, as the latter will be found very convenient in many places.

The next thing in order is the estimating of soil-pipe fittings, including main-vent fittings.

The fittings needed in the cellar on horizontal lines will be evident from reference to the cellar plan, which should always show a plan of the horizontal cellar work. A rough sketch of the vertical lines, both soil, waste, and vent, with their fittings and connections into the horizontal lines, will be found very helpful in estimating the fittings to be used. The pipes shown in such a sketch may be represented by single lines instead of double lines, as in Plate 33.