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Sanitary Fittings And Plumbing | by G. Lister Sutcliffe



During the last quarter of a century, so many books have been written on the sanitation of buildings that there would be little need for another work on any part of the subject, were it not that sanitary science is still rapidly progressing. New discoveries and inventions are continually pressing for notice, and old problems are being solved in new ways...

TitleSanitary Fittings And Plumbing
AuthorG. Lister Sutcliffe
PublisherWhittaker & Co.
Year1901
Copyright1901, Whittaker & Co.
AmazonSanitary fittings and plumbing

By G. Lister Sutcliffe, Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects; Member of the Sanitary Institute : Editor and Joint Author of "Modern House Construction" Author of "Concrete : Its Nature and Uses," etc., etc..

With 212 Illustrations

"The Builder" Student's Series.

-Preface
During the last quarter of a century, so many books have been written on the sanitation of buildings that there would be little need for another work on any part of the subject, were it not that sanit...
-Chapter I. Introductory. Disease Germs
The wonderful increase in our knowledge of the causation of many diseases is one of the most marked features of recent years, and although very much indeed has yet to be learnt, sufficient is known to...
-Germicidal Agents
Moisture almost invariably favours the growth of bacteria, but some species can exist for a lengthened period in a dry medium. Sunlight, on the other hand, retards the growth of bacteria, and is often...
-Defective Fittings And Plumbing
But however satisfactory the general conditions may be, great danger will exist if the fittings themselves are not of a suitable character and if the plumber's work in connection with them is not prop...
-Water-Carriage And Conservancy Systems
Statistics as to the incidence of disease in houses provided with water-closets and in houses with pail-closets or privies are somewhat confusing, but it is not going too far to say that water-closets...
-Drainage
It follows from these premises that so-called sanitary fittings and plumbing are dangerous unless they are not only satisfactory in themselves, but are also properly connected with drains and sewers w...
-Chapter II. Sanitary Rooms
The diverse character of sanitary fittings necessitates considerable difference in the location and arrangement of the rooms in which they are placed, but certain general rules are applicable in every...
-Ventilation
The sanitary rooms of a building are those in which the foulest portions of the domestic and personal duties are performed, and yet less care is often bestowed on the ventilation of these rooms than o...
-Plan
In modern hospitals the water-closets, bathrooms, and sinkrooms are generally planned with short passages or lobbies between them and the wards, these passages having windows and openings for air on b...
-Construction
The general construction of rooms containing sanitary fittings ought to be of the best. The floors-of ground-floor and upper rooms alike-ought, where possible, to be of concrete, the ingredients to be...
-Chapter III. The Number Of Sanitary Fittings Required
Obviously the number of sanitary fittings required in any building must vary according to its nature and size. It will be best, therefore, to consider the more important classes of buildings separatel...
-Chapter IV. General Notes On Sanitary Fittings
Definition The term sanitary fittings is generally taken to include all fittings intended for the reception of the foul liquids and water-carried solids which are produced in and about our building...
-Chapter V. Sanitary Pottery. Salt-Glazed Ware
The material most commonly used for the cheaper kinds of fittings is salt-glazed stoneware. The glaze is produced by throwing common salt into the kiln during the last stage of firing. The salt is dec...
-Enamelled Fireclay
A better surface is obtained by means of porcelain enamel, which is a thin film of porcelain fired on to a fireclay body. The piece of fireclay, modelled to the required shape, is burnt in the kiln ...
-Chapter VI. Sinks
Varieties Sinks are of various kinds. Among these may be mentioned (1) the sink-of-all-work, commonly known as a scullery or kitchen sink, which, being without a waste-plug, does not hold water; (2) ...
-Sinks. Part 2
Fig. 14. Butler's Sink with faulty Overflow. Overflows of this kind cannot be kept clean, and a much better arrangement is shown in fig. 15, which is often known as the Belfast pattern. In this c...
-Sinks. Part 3
A more ordinary form of combined sink is illustrated in fig. 21. This consists of an enamelled fireclay sink (about 22 in. by 18 in. by 13 1/2 in.) with rubbed slate or marble front and skirtings, sla...
-Chapter VII. Sink-Wastes And Overflows
Simple Wastes In the common sink-of all-work, the waste-outlet generally takes the form of a simple brass grate, the stone or fireclay having a rebated hole, as shown in fig. 28, to receive it. A cup...
-Plug-Wastes
Similar arrangements to those shown in figs. 28 and 29 are often adopted for butlers' sinks and wash-tubs, but the grating is placed at a lower level, so as to leave a socket above it for the receptio...
-Plugs
Waste-plugs are generally of brass, carefully ground to fit the washer, but the weight of a large plug of this kind is so great as to damage the enamel of the sink if the plug is allowed to fall upon ...
-Standing Wastes
Combined wastes and overflows are now made in almost endless variety, but they are, as a rule, merely modifications of the old standing waste and overflow, of which the simplest form is shown in fig. ...
-Chapter VIII. Lavatories
Materials The material generally used for household lavatories is white earthenware or pottery, commonly known as porcelain or by some special name such as queensware. The great defect of this materi...
-Lavatories. Continued
Fig. 42. Lavatory with Open-top Overflow and Side-motion Waste Valve. The discharge grating may be of porcelain, or of nickel-plated brass hinged so that the plug and seating can be cleaned. This la...
-Lavatories
Folding Lavatories are often adopted in offices where exposed basins would be somewhat unsightly, and also in confined spaces such as the lavatory compartments of railway carriages and the state-rooms...
-Lavatories For Schools, Etc
Enamelled fireclay lavatories are largely adopted in schools and other places where they are likely to be subjected to rough usage. The ordinary basin (fig. 53) contains no special features. The overf...
-Cabinet Lavatories
Many persons, however, still prefer cabinet lavatories, especially for dressing-rooms and bedrooms, but as the actual fittings do not differ from those already described, no illustrations need be gi...
-Chapter IX. Baths
Materials Baths are made of zinc, copper, sheet steel, sheet iron, cast iron, enamelled fireclay, slate, and marble, and also of wood, either naked or lined with lead, but probably cast iron is more ...
-Baths. Continued
Fig. 65. Braby's Empress Sheet-Steel Bath. The parallel plate-zinc bath (fig. 66) is made of plate-zinc 1/8 in. thick, and has a roll edge on the front and head, and a square raised rim on the ba...
-Special Baths
The ordinary plunge bath is often fitted with a hood containing pipes and other fittings by which the water can be admitted in a shower, spray, wave, and other ways. The shower is admitted through a...
-Chapter X. Bath Overflows And Wastes, Etc
Improvements in bath wastes and overflows have in the main followed the same lines as the improvements in the corresponding parts of sinks and lavatories. The tendency has been to make the various par...
-Waste Plugs
In the case of baths, which, being fixed at a low level, are liable to severe blows from falling plugs, it is highly desirable that chained plugs should be as light and soft as possible; this is espec...
-Inlets
At one time it was a common practice to admit the water to a bath through the waste-outlet. This was effected by connecting the hot and cold supply-pipes to the waste-pipe between the waste-outlet and...
-Chapter XI. Bath-Heaters
In houses where there is no hot-water supply or where this supply is insufficient, some method of heating bathwater is necessary. Usually an appliance known as a geyser is adopted for the purpose, g...
-Chapter XII. Mechanical Water-Closets
For many years after the introduction of water-closets the appliances were of such an insanitary character, and the drains into which they discharged were so badly constructed and ventilated, that the...
-Valve-Closets
Bramah's valve-closet was followed by many others on similar lines. The improvements which were gradually made included the better flushing of the basin, the improvement of the valve so as to fit clos...
-Mechanical Water-Closets
A new form of valve-closet has been designed by Doulton & Co., in which a press-button takes the place of the usual handle. If the button is released, the water continues to flow through the valve unt...
-Plug-Closets
The Trapless valve-closet was an attempt to simplify the mechanism of the ordinary type of valve-closet. The trap was omitted, and the hinged valve was replaced by a plug attached directly to the ha...
-Chapter XIII. Non-Mechanical Water-Closets
Non-Mechanical Water-closets may be divided into four classes-hopper, wash-down, wash-out, and siphonic. Trough-closets and latrines are also non-mechanical closets, but it will be most convenient to ...
-Non-Mechanical Water-Closets. Part 2
Fig. 97. Shanks's Compactum Wash-down Pedestal Closet with Lead Trap. The next example (fig. 97) shows a more recent closet of the same type, the Compactum. In this the waterarea measures 8 1/4...
-Non-Mechanical Water-Closets. Part 3
It is impossible in the space at our disposal to discuss all the different forms of wash-down closet. Strong glazed fireclay or enamelled cast-iron closets are made for workshops and other places wher...
-Non-Mechanical Water-Closets
A, into the top of the long leg of the siphon, the air in this leg being at the same time expelled through the puff-pipe, B. The second trap, C, is of lead, and can be ventilated, if necessary, by the...
-Combination Closets
This name is often applied to closets in which the flushing cistern is placed immediately above the seat of the closet. Such closets were originally introduced for fixing in places where the water wou...
-Seats
Water-closet seats are commonly made of wood, left plain, or painted, varnished, or polished. White enamel paint looks very well and is fairly durable, but in this country seats are generally polished...
-Chapter XIV. Water-Closet Flushing Apparatus, Etc
Amount Of Flush No water-closet, however good it may be, will be satisfactory unless it is adequately flushed. The dribble of water which was formerly admitted to the basin through a small pipe was i...
-Flushing Cisterns
Water-closet flushing cisterns are of three main types-the valve, the siphon, and the tipper. A fourth kind, which may be called the pneumatic, may be used with high-pressure supplies. In combinatio...
-Flushing Cisterns. Continued
Fig. 117. Valve-siphon Cistern. Two examples of the dome siphon cistern are given in figs. 118 and 119. Winn's Acme cistern (fig. 118) has been very largely used. The dome or cap A forms with the...
-Noisy Flushing
Many water-closets are undoubtedly very noisy in action. The rush of water in the basin cannot be entirely prevented, but the sound may be deadened by the use of a hinged lid over the seat, and by fix...
-Flushing Mechanism
Cisterns are usually actuated by means of a chain and handle attached to the flushing lever. To prevent the swinging of the handle a rod may be substituted for the lower part of the chain, and made to...
-Chapter XV. Trough-Closets, Latrines, And Waste-Water Closets
1. Trough-Closets Trough-closets are a simple kind of water-closet, and have been extensively used in connection with factories, barracks, schools, and other buildings, where accommodation is require...
-Flush - Tanks
Flush - tanks for trough - closets and latrines are almost invariably of the siphonic type, and ought to be designed so that the action will be started by a drop-by-drop supply. In some cases the tank...
-Flush-Pipes
The flush-pipes for trough-closets are of simple character and are generally supplied with the tank and trough. For latrines the pipes must be more complicated, as a branch must be taken to each basin...
-Chapter XVI. Slop-Hoppers And Sinks
Water-Closets As Slop-Hoppers In small houses the water-closet generally serves also as slop-hopper, and is well adapted for the purpose of removing the slops, but affords no facilities for cleansing...
-Chapter XVII. Urinals
In ordinary houses special urinals are not required, as the water-closets serve the necessary purpose, provided that they are not enclosed with woodwork. A slop-top renders the closet more serviceable...
-Urinals. Continued
Fig. 141. Tylor's Trapped Urinal Basin. Urinal basins are generally fixed with brass screws, but sometimes lugs are provided at the back for fitting into slots in the wall-slab. As pottery often warp...
-Stall-Urinals With Basins
The stall-urinal constructed of slabs exposes a large surface to the action of urine, and is therefore difficult to keep clean and free from smell. For urinals inside buildings it is a good plan to fi...
-Flush-Pipes, Etc
As a rule, not more than six urinals should be flushed from one cistern on account of the difficulty of distributing the water equally to all the stalls. A common arrangement consists in fixing the ci...
-Chapter XVIII. Traps
Definition A plumber's trap is a vessel affording a free passage for water but not for air. In its simplest form it is merely a bent pipe (fig. 150); the bend retains the last portion of the water en...
-Principal Trap Types
The D trap has been so frequently condemned by sanitarians that it is now never used by any one with the slightest knowledge of modern plumbing. It cannot possibly be kept clean and becomes in time a ...
-Anti-Siphonage Traps
Cast-lead traps of various kinds are now made for the express purpose of preventing siphonage in the case of single fittings. Smeaton's Eclipse trap (fig. 161) has served as the model from which lat...
-Chapter XIX. The Unsealing Of Traps
Causes Of Unsealing Under certain conditions, trap-ventilation is absolutely necessary in order to prevent the seal of the traps being destroyed by the ordinary use of the fittings, but ventilation i...
-Trapped Soil-Pipes
Many old soil-pipes are trapped at the foot. This trap is a source of danger, especially if two or more closets on different floors are connected to the soil-pipe. When the uppermost closet is dischar...
-Trap-Ventilation
It is unnecessary to describe in detail, other conditions which lead to the unsealing of traps. The principal points to be borne in mind are the necessity of trap-ventilation (especially when the wast...
-Chapter XX. Joints In Pipes
The plumber has now to deal not only with lead, but also with brass, iron, copper, pottery, and other materials, and must be able to make perfect joints not only between two pieces of the same materia...
-Expansion-Joints
Long lead waste-pipes from fittings discharging hot and cold water, such as sinks and baths, sometimes crack in consequence of the alternate expansion and contraction. To prevent this, expansion-joint...
-Lead To Brass And Copper
Joints between lead and brass or copper present no peculiar difficulty. After the end portion of the brass or copper pipe has been tinned, it can be united to the lead pipe either by a copper-bit or...
-Lead To Pottery
For connecting a lead soil-pipe to a stoneware drain, a brass sleeve, similar to those shown in figs. 182 and 183, but with a wider flange for fitting into the stoneware socket, should be wiped to the...
-Brass, Copper, Etc
Brass and copper pipes may be united to other pipes of the same materials by screwed ends or by screwed unions, brass and copper pipes to lead by soldered joints, brass and copper to iron by caulked l...
-Pottery To Pottery
Joints of this kind occur at the outlets of closets connected directly with the drains. This direct connection ought never to be made except in outbuildings, as it necessitates the drain being brought...
-Chapter XXI. Waste-Pipes
Definition The term waste-pipe may with advantage be confined to pipes receiving discharges from fittings which are used for personal ablution and for washing crockery, domestic utensils, vegetable...
-Waste-Pipes. Continued
7 Wastepipes ought not to be connected to soil-pipes or to drain-ventilating pipes, or to the traps of water-closets or slop-hoppers, but ought to be kept entirely distinct. An exception to this rul...
-Anti-Siphonage Pipes
The size of anti-siphonage pipes merits careful consideration, but no hard and fast rule can be laid down. For a single fitting the sectional area of the anti-siphonage pipe (A, fig. 196) need not be ...
-Ranges Of Fittings
In the case of ranges of fittings the same principles can be applied, as shown in fig. 197, each fitting being separately trapped and each trap being ventilated. Ranges of lavatories, however, are oft...
-Chapter XXII. Waste-Pipes From Urinals
Definition According to the definition already given, all pipes from sanitary fittings intended for the reception of urine and faeces may be regarded as soil pipes. The pipes from urinals are, howeve...
-Chapter XXIII. Soil-Pipes, Etc
Soil-pipes are pipes receiving discharges from water-closets and slop-hoppers, and sometimes from urinals, and, like Goldsmith's bed and chest of drawers, they pay a double debt, being in most cases u...
-Soil-Pipes
It is a mistake to fix an air-extracting cowl on the top of a soil-pipe, as this checks the upward current in still weather, and in high winds prevents the inrush of air required by the trap-ventilati...
-Soil-Pipes. Part 2
The following table gives a list of some of the pipes now manufactured, with the weight of the lead per superficial foot in each case:- Drawn-lead Soil-Pipes Internal diameter in inches. ...
-Soil-Pipes. Part 3
Fig. 202. Brass Socket with Junction for Anti-siphonage Pipe. Light rainwater pipes must not be used as soil-pipes, as it is impossible to make a proper caulked joint in them on account of the narr...
-Soil-Pipes. Part 4
Fig. 206. Joint in Lead-lined Cast-iron Pipes. Fig. 207. Cast-iron Soil-pipe and Anti-s'phonnge Pipes. Another and better method of overcoming the difficulty consists in fixing the main anti-sip...
-Chapter XXIV. Testing Plumber's Work
It is not our purpose to enter into the details of the methods to be adopted in preparing sanitary surveys of existing buildings, but merely to point out in what ways waste-pipes and soil-pipes can be...
-Testing Plumber's Work. Continued
4. The Hydraulic Test. - If a stoppage occurs near the foot of a waste-pipe or soil-pipe, it will probably not be discovered until the pipe has been filled (by discharges from the fittings) to the lev...
-By-Laws Of The London County Council
By-laws made by the London County Council under the public health (london) ad, 1891. BY-LAWS UNDER SECTION 39 (1). With respect to Water-closets, Earth-closets, Privies, Ashpits, Cesspools, and Rece...
-By-Laws Of The London County Council. Part 2
Soil-Pipes 4. Note.- The by-laws relating to soil-pipes and connections therewith have now been modified; see By-laws 11 to 16, pages 262-5 hereafter. Water-Closets 5. A person who shall newly fit ...
-By-Laws Of The London County Council. Part 3
He shall construct such privy so that for the purpose of cleansing the space beneath the seat, or of removing therefrom or placing or fitting therein an appropriate receptacle for filth, there shall b...
-Drainage By-Laws
The Metropolis Management Act, 1855, Section 202. By-Laws Made By The Council For Regulating the Dimensions, Form, and Mode of Construction, and the Keeping, Cleansing, and Repairing of the Pipes, D...
-Drainage By-Laws. Part 2
No Inlets To Drains Within Buildings 9. A person who shall erect a new building shall not construct any drain of such building communicating with a sewer in such a manner that there shall be within s...
-Drainage By-Laws. Part 3
Connection Of Iron Soil-Pipe, Etc., With Stoneware Drain, Etc 15. Any person who shall connect an iron soil-pipe, waste-pipe, ventilating-pipe, or trap with a stoneware or semivitrified ware pipe or ...
-The Builder Student's Series. Books
THESE Books, although intended primarily for the Student in Architecture, Engineering, Surveying, Sanitary Science, etc, will also be found of great practical value alike to the Professional Man, the ...







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previous page: Principles And Practice Of Plumbing | by John Joseph Cosgrove
  
page up: Construction and Plumbing Books
  
next page: Standard Practical Plumbing | R. M. Starbuck