In some sections of the country, very little trouble is experienced from rust and sediment, while in others, mucn trouble is experienced. Every possible precaution should be taken against the filling up of the boiler connections and water front with sediment, as it results in checking the free circulation of the water. In addition, the presence of rust and sediment produces a discolored water, unfit for kitchen, laundry, or toilet purposes. Another evil, encountered in some sections, is the depositing of lime in the pipes and in the water front. Special devices for the prevention of this trouble are also on the market, and for them, satisfactory results are claimed.

In the proper action of the range boiler many points are to be considered. As already stated, it is very essential that the flow pipe should be properly graded between the range and boiler, never being allowed to dip or sag. Another feature, which is too often overlooked, is the maintenance of a good fire in the range. If the body of coal in the fire box is thin, or full of ashes, it cannot be expected that the water front will properly perform its work. In order that it may do its best work a live fire should be maintained. Very often, the cause of poor heating is due to the use of coal of too large a size. Under such conditions the air spaces between the coals is of such an amount as to have a cooling effect upon the fire, and to prevent good contact of the body of live coals against the water front. The troubles just named produce similar results in heating systems. It very often happens that people enter complaint to the plumber that boiler work which he has installed is not properly constructed, and is not giving good service, whereas the sole cause of such results is the poor management of the range fire. This is true to such an extent, that the workman of experience, when called upon to pass judgment on such work, will generally, after an inspection of the range connections, look at the range fire, as the most probable cause of the trouble.

Another source of poor results in range-boiler work is the wrong proportion of heating surface in the water front as related to the size of the boiler to be heated. The heating surface may be too great for the size of the boiler, or it may be too small. If too small, the water will not heat properly, and if too great, it will overheat, boil and form steam, causing the kicking and hammering so often to be heard in range boilers. Such results are not only of great annoyance to the inmates of the house, but are injurious to the boiler and piping. Obstructions in the range connection must be avoided. These obstructions might result from collections of rust and scale in the connection, especially if of iron pipe, from lime deposits, from union gaskets that had worked into the pipe, and from other causes. An obstruction, if serious, generally causes the overheating of the water, the consequent formation of steam, with the same results as mentioned above.

Fig. 274.   Connections for Horizontal Range Boiler.

Fig. 274. - Connections for Horizontal Range Boiler.

Range connections of too small pipe should not be used, as under such conditions the evils of overheating the water passing through the water front may arise. If iron pipe is to be used, nothing smaller than 3/4-inch pipe should be considered for the range connection, as smaller sizes will more readily fill up. If brass or lead connections are used, it is safe under some conditions to use 5/8 or even 1/2-inch pipe. Even in their use, however, it is far better practice to make the range connection of nothing smaller than 3/4-inch pipe;

Thus far, mention has been made only of the vertical boiler.

The horizontal range boiler is also much used, though not to the extent on small work that the vertical boiler is. The principles governing the installation and operation of horizontal boilers are in no way different from the principles already given relating to vertical range boiler work.

In Fig. 274 is shown a common method of making horizontal range boiler connections. The cold-water supply to the boiler is conducted through a boiler tube to the bottom of the boiler, as in the use of the vertical boiler. In this illustration, the flow pipe from the range is connected into the upper part of the end of the boiler, and the cold water out of the bottom. The hot-water connection to the fixtures is generally made as shown, at the same end of the boiler that the flow pipe from the range enters, as the water at this point is fully as hot as at any other point in the boiler.

Fig. 275.   Connections for Horizontal Range Boiler

Fig. 275. - Connections for Horizontal Range Boiler.

In Fig. 275 another method of connecting the horizontal boiler is to be seen. In this case, the boiler supply is connected at the center of the end and carried to the bottom of the boiler by means of a bent boiler tube. The cold-water connection from the boiler to the range is made through the center opening of the opposite end, the water being taken from the bottom through a bent pipe, as shown. The flow pipe from the range and the flow pipe to the fixtures are connected as shown in the preceding illustration. The boiler supply should always be provided with a valve, located at an accessible point near the boiler.

In connection with the use of the supply valve, when used on the pressure boiler, the precaution should be taken of opening a hot-water faucet if the range fire is in action. The reason for this is that when the valve is closed, all opportunity for the expansion of the hot water is cut off, and the opening of a hot-water faucet is necessary to provide a vent for the expansion. It will be seen that with a heavy fire continuing to deliver hot water to a boiler on which there is no expansion, serious trouble is bound to occur if such conditions are allowed to exist for any length of time. A third method of connecting the horizontal range boiler, differing only in minor essentials from the two methods already mentioned, is illustrated in Fig. 276.

Fig. 276.   Connections for Horizontal Range Boiler.

Fig. 276. - Connections for Horizontal Range Boiler.