R is a hammer head chisel and S a hammer head gouge, both of which are used in such work as cutting through floors, timbers, etc., and should be ground and tempered to withstand as well as possible the striking of nails and similar rough usage.

Fig. 6.   Special Plumbers' Chisels.

Fig. 6. - Special Plumbers' Chisels.

These tools will be found preferable for hard usage to the common wooden-handled chisels. The three tools shown by T, U, and V, are respectively cape and half-round cape chisel, and diamond point chisel.

A very important feature in the making of calking tools is the forming of them in such a manner that they shall be rigid under a blow, with as little spring as possible. In offset tools, for instance, the offset should be as straight as possible, as a sharp offset will make the tool spring, and often render it unfit for use. This is one of the chief objections to calking tools handled by most jobbers of such goods.

There are many other varieties of special calking tools and chisels which might be mentioned, but those already described constitute the principal types of such tools.

In Fig. 7 are shown several special plumber's tools, some of which are of comparatively recent origin, while others have been in common use for many years.

The 5-wheel lead pipe cutter is a tool well-known and highly valued. The only point against it is that it will not cut larger than 1 1/2-inch pipe. This is a point which the 4-wheel cutter shown in the illustration overcomes, a point of considerable importance nowadays, as the use of two-inch pipe is constantly increasing, as it is a size which is being more extensively used on waste lines for such fixtures as kitchen sinks, laundry tubs, etc.

The lead pipe expanding pliers is a tool which has been devised to do the work of the several sizes of turn pins. By pressing the lever handles together, the conical end opens and spreads the pipe. The end of the cone is knurled, which tends to prevent the expanding cone from slipping out of the end of a heavy pipe in expanding it.

It will be seen that as the cone opens, it forms an ellipse instead of a true circle, and to make the expanded end of the pipe perfectly round, the expander must be constantly turned as it is being used.

The asbestos joint runner is a most valuable tool to the plumber, although, strange to say, there are many plumbers who do not possess the tool, and still adhere to the old methods of using clay, putty, oakum, etc., in making calked joints.

As the illustration shows, the asbestos rope is wound around the pipe, both ends bent back, and secured by the clamp, allowing a triangular opening into which the metal may be poured. On vertical joints the use of the joint runner is not necessary, but on horizontal joints it is of great service in preventing the escape of the molten lead when it is poured into the hub.

The brass pipe wrench is to-day a necessity with the plumber who desires to put up neat brass and nickel work. As shown in illustration, the wrench is arranged for brass tubing, the curve in the head of the wrench preventing the crushing of the tubing. When being used on brass pipe, the strain comes on the nose of the wrench or near the point. The grip is made by means of a stout band or strap made of heavy ducking, by means of which a powerful grip may be secured without marring or scratching the pipe, as would result in the use of a common pipe wrench. To make the strap work properly, it should be rosined.

Fig. 7.   Plumbers' Tools for Special Purposes.

Fig. 7. - Plumbers' Tools for Special Purposes.

The brass pipe vise operates in a similar manner by the use of a rosined strap of ducking. When such a vise is not at hand, brass and nickel pipe may be held without scratching by means of wooden blocks, as shown in Fig. 8, a separate block being used for each size of pipe.

Sizes Of Moleskin Wiping Cloths 12Sizes Of Moleskin Wiping Cloths 13Fig. 8.   Wooden Vise Blocks for Holding Brass Pipe.

Fig. 8. - Wooden Vise Blocks for Holding Brass Pipe.

These blocks may be made by boring a hole of the right size through a split block, and then planing the surfaces that come together slightly, so that the surfaces will not meet when held in the vise.

The basin plug wrench is a simple but very handy device. It is used for preventing the turning of the bowl plug of a wash basin when the locknut underneath is being set up, and also for holding the plug when it is to be disconnected. The plumber often has trouble in holding the plug from turning, and in many cases has been known to use his dividers to do the work of the wrench, usually springing and otherwise damaging them.

The pipe-bending form is of cast iron, screwed to the work bench or to a plank, and is used in making bends on wrought iron, brass, and lead pipe. By adjusting the eye bolt to the work, the bending may be easily accomplished.

There are many tools which the plumber usually has in his kit, or the employer owns, which are not shown in the accompanying illustrations. Most of the fundamental and most necessary tools have been shown, however, and briefly described, and at various other points certain other tools will be mentioned.