"We may now take up types of Baroque furniture which do not properly accompany Renaissance forms. The Armoire (Plate 141 A) is illustrated to show the work of Boulle, the most famous ebeniste of all time. Pieces such as this do not find their counterpart in those of other nations and so are best accompanied by contemporary (Louis XIV) furniture such as the chair and table on Plate 143 B and C. They are, however, practically unprocurable and any wealthy connoisseur possessed of such examples would probably own museum pieces of other nationalities with which they might (notwithstanding differences) be placed in such a residence. Reproductions are made of the fine furniture of this and the succeeding reigns, but their cost is necessarily great.

* For British furniture of all epochs, see " The Practical Book of Period Furniture" by Eberlein and McClure.

While the chair and table just referred to are distinctly ornamental, it will be seen that they go excellently well with the handsome contemporary marquet-erie cabinet of William and Mary on the same plate (Plate 143 D). The three are all dignified, and the resemblance of the French and English pieces is illuminating to the student of international furnishing: yet differences exist throughout and it will be observed that the three pieces of furniture exhibit as many types of stretcher. These pieces are all of the latter part of the Baroque epoch when classic feeling had regained its ascendancy. Earlier French furniture of formal character will be seen in Plate 30 A and B.

The Baroque age provides many more intimate and homelike forms than the preceding era and these are exemplified by the William and Mary and Queen Anne furniture of England and analogous pieces in other lands.

The Italian red lacquer armoire (Plate 142 B) and the French and Venetian escritoires on Plate 146 are fine specimens of Continental work, while two beautiful chests of drawers are exhibited in Plate 147 C and D. The seating-furniture is also of great interest. The form of chair usually designated as William and Mary really originated in Portugal and a Spanish example is shown to the left in Plate 148 B. The chair below it shows the Chinese influence acquired through foreign commerce. Those at the top of the plate show affinity with the earlier Yorkshire English chairs. The Portuguese chair (Plate 149 A) and settee (Plate 149 C) are fine and desirable pieces. Spanish Baroque and Rococo pieces will be seen in Plate 25.

Special attention is called to the two chairs Plate 148 B centre and D because they parallel a group of furniture not so far considered - the plain forms of Queen Anne-early Georgian with the phase of Chippendale derived from them, with which these chairs are analogous. This furniture is Baroque and yet it requires some special consideration apart from the rest, for it is, a group having no parallel in Prance and, indeed, no close affiliation with the furniture of England either preceding or following it.

The period is contemporary with the last years of Louis XIV and the most of those of the Rococo, but how wonderfully different its furniture is from the mo-biliary forms of the same years in France! The reason is evident-during the reigns of William and Mary and of Queen Anne these Dutch forms came in and persisted during the two following Hanoverian reigns. The Dutch influence had, of course, arrived with the accession of William and Mary, but the earlier contours of that period were different from those of Anne and were more in accord with other Baroque mobiliary forms.

The architectural furniture and those pieces of cabinet-work which extended to the floor (without legs) retained a fair degree of dignity and impressiveness, though simple, and the ornately carved consoles and chairs were sufficiently ornamental and Baroque; but the plain highboys, chairs, settees, and the like, with the typical plain cabriole leg and club foot, form a genus apart.

Now, what shall we do with this admirable, homelike furniture? It seems to the writers that in houses not stately classic or formal, where the more intimate forms of the Baroque epoch are employed, that these might well be used in such apartments as men's rooms, bedrooms and living-rooms without undue incongruity. Or, a house might be very delightfully furnished with this furniture, fine Dutch chests, and the like, some pieces of the William and Mary reign, and relieved with Italian and Spanish furniture following the same general lines. Some lacquered furniture should be used, it being a specialty of her reign. The southern pieces were often painted and decorated. The Oriental touch would also be quite in order, and blue and white porcelain especially appropriate. With such resources as these a charming result could be obtained. The latter part of the period introduced the use of mahogany, but that would sufficiently well accompany the usual walnut if the finish were the same.

Present-Day Use Of The Baroque

To sum up our investigations, then, we have seen that the English fixed background of this epoch is homelike, whether handsome or more simple; that the very Baroque manifestations of the French interior are interesting and curious rather than particularly desirable for use today; that while certain Classic tendencies asserted themselves in the reign of Louis XIV the word best describing its general result is pompous; that the Italian architectural background is very ornate but generally good, and is therefore suitable for those who desire such houses; that the Spanish interior is attractive and so available for parts of America where Spanish influences prevailed but rather alien to the East and Middle West. In general, therefore, it would seem best to employ the English background or one of the simpler Renaissance forms.

As to the furniture, it was observed in a former chapter that unless we wish a museum effect the more satisfying result will be obtained if the furniture of the country chosen for the background prevails, being relieved by the use of appropriate and interesting pieces of other nationalities.

We should not show taste and discrimination by placing together the rigidly severe furniture of the earliest Renaissance with that redolent of Baroque ornament; but there is a sliding scale between the two where we may find many companionable pieces.

If these periods have been fixed upon for a scheme of decoration we should decide upon the general degree of handsomeness to be observed. There should not be a confusion of impressive and non-impressive forms, though, of course, there may be a piece de resistance or two with usually simple furnishings and this will level up the general effect Doubtless many more informal and homelike pieces existed in the homes of the bourgeoisie of the early days we have been considering than we now know of; they have likely perished, and it is to be remembered that it is usually only the more elaborate forms that are preserved in the stately buildings of the past and in museums, books and pictures.