Oystering

A veneer very popular in the first decade of the eighteenth century, made from the transverse slices of the boughs or roots of the walnut and other trees. The slices are referred to as Oyster-pieces, and the arrangement as Oystering.

Ozier Mats

J. H. Pollen tells us that ozier mats were laid over the benches on which King Edward I. and Queen Eleanor sat at meals, and that they were also put under the feet, especially in churches where the pavement was of stone or tiles.

Pad Foot

Similar to the club foot, without the disc-like addition underneath.

Pagoda

A temple or tower of a type found in Eastern Asia. On the return of Sir William Chambers from China and the publication of his "Designs" in 1757, Chippendale, Darly, Manwaring, Ince, Mayhew and others designed or made furniture in which details of the Chinese pagoda, and especially the roof, were the basis of the designs.

Painted Furniture

The use of paint for the embellishment of architectural features and furniture is of ancient origin. In the Renaissance it was freely used by the Italians with gilding to decorate cassoni or wedding chests, and other articles of furniture. In England it was sometimes used on carved furniture previous to the Restoration. Soon after that period a love for colour spread, and lacquer or japanning in brilliant tints became a vogue. During the late Queen Anne and Chippendale periods, form was more considered than colour; but in the Adam period painted furniture came into high favour both here and in France, and a great deal of the furniture designed or made by the brothers Adam, Hepplewhite and Sheraton, who preferred inlay, was decorated with paintings of Renaissance ornament, or beautiful figure designs by Cipriani, Pergolesi, Angelica Kauffmann, Zucchi and others. Sometimes the woodwork was wholly or partially painted, and on this groundwork the artist painted his designs.

Paktong (White Copper)

An alloy imported from China in the eighteenth century, made of copper, nickel, zinc, etc., in varying proportions, silvery in appearance, hard and resonant. It was employed in England for making candlesticks, fire grates, fenders, fireirons, etc., of high quality and fine workmanship. The name "tutenag" (the commercial term in the East Indies for zinc) has been wrongly applied to paktong. See "Tutenag and Paktong," by Alfred Bonnin, Oxford University Press, 1924.

Andrea Palladio (1518-1580)

Founder of the style of architecture called Palladian which was based upon a free use of the classic styles adapted to the needs and feelings of the Renaissance period.

Palmette

A conventionalized palm leaf used in a variety of forms as a decorative feature on furniture - a spreading ornament of the same type as the honeysuckle (the Greek Anthemion), the shell of the Queen Anne period, and the fan of the Adam school. See also Pelmet.

Panel

An area or reserve on a surface distinct from the general surface, formed in a variety of ways, such as by sinking its surface below the surrounding level as in the case of wainscoting, doors, drawers, etc., or by raising it above the surface, or by fixing mouldings to the surface as in the case of the applied mouldings of the late Jacobean period. Panels are also formed of canework, marquetry, needlework, upholstery, and painting, such as the panels by Angelica Kauffmann, Cipriani, Pergolesi, and others, painted on the furniture of the late eighteenth century.