This section is from the book "Mechanics Of The Household", by E. S. Keene. Also available from Amazon: Mechanics Of The Household.

Rules for determining the amount of radiating surface that will be required to satisfactorily heat a building to 70°F. regardless of weather conditions are entirely empirical, that is, they are derived from experience. It is evident that no definite rule can be established that will take into account the method of building construction, the kind and amount of materials that make up the walls and the quality of workmanship employed. These variable quantities coupled with the changing climatic conditions of temperature and wind velocity produce a complication that cannot be overcome in a formula that will give exact results.

Many rules are in use for this purpose, no two of which give exactly the same results when applied to a problem. A common practice is to apply one of the rules in use and then under conditions of exceptional exposure, to add to the amount thus calculated as experience may dictate.

The following rule by Professor R. G. Carpenter of Cornell University was taken from a handbook published by the J. L. Mott Iron Works of New York. This company manufactures and deals in all kinds of apparatus entering into steam and hot-water heating and the rule is given as one that has produced satisfactory results.

Add the area of the glass surface in the room to one-quarter of the exposed wall surface, and to this add from one-fifty-fifth to three-fifty-fifths of the cubical contents (one-fifty-fifth for rooms on upper floor, two-fifty-fifths for rooms on first floor and three-fifty-fifths for large halls); then for steam multiply by 0.25, and for hot water by 0.40.

A room 20 by 12 by 10 feet with glass exposure of 48 feet, 1/4 of wall exposure (two sides exposed) 320 feet = 80, 1/55 of 2400 = 44.

48 + 80 + 44 = 172 X 0.25 = 43 feet. If you add 2/55 the surface would be 54 feet. If you add 3/55 the surface would be 65 feet.

For any size system of steam or water heating the following rule will be found entirely satisfactory for mains 100 feet long; for each 100 feet additional use a size larger ratio.

r | = | 3.1416 | R | = | a | X | 100. |

d | r |

r represents ratio of main in inches for each 100 feet of surface; d, diameter of pipe; R, quantity of radiation carried by size of pipe;a, area of pipe in inches.

From this the following table has been constructed:

Diameter of pipe | Area of pipe | Ratio to each 100 feet of surface | Quantity of radiation, steam or water, on a given size pipe |

1 1/2 | 1.767 | 2.10 | 84 |

2 | 3.141 | 1.57 | 200 |

2 1/2 | 4.908 | 1.25 | 400 |

3 | 7.069 | 1.04 | 700 |

3 1/2 | 9.621 | 0.90 | 1,062 |

4 | 12.566 | 0.78 | 1,590 |

4 1/2 | 15.904 | 0.70 | 2,272 |

5 | 19.625 | 0.63 | 3,120 |

6 | 28.274 | 0.52 | 5,440 |

7 | 38.484 | 0.45 | 8,550 |

8 | 50.265 | 0.40 | 12,556 |

9 | 63.617 | 0.35 | 18,100 |

10 | 78.540 | 0.30 | 25,300 |

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