In this list there are colors, the names of which are standard, as they have become familiar to the trade by long usage, while each and every color grinder has his own proprietary name for some of his specialties. As these are not in regular lines we shall not discuss them at length, but simply pick one out here and there as examples, confining ourselves to the description of the well-known materials. These consist of or comprise such as carriage part lake, coach red, carmine, English vermilion, red lake, rose lake, rose pink, road cart red, Indian red, Tuscan red, Venetian red, wine color.

Carriage Part Lake. - The name indicates the use to which this color is assigned. Is not so much in demand as formerly, the maroon toners having taken its place. Still when called for, the pigment selected is a good rose lake of good strength and twice as much crimson lake of the cochineal type above referred to ground in coach japan at the rate of 60 parts dry color to 40 parts japan. The pigments must be bone dry, otherwise the ground color will liver in short order.

Coach Red or Coach Painters' Red. - This brilliant red, made on a base of orange mineral and eosine vermilion with alizarine red lake, is now supplanted by reds of the paranitraniline type, such as the autol fast red, asophor red, helio fast red, as the dyestuffs of recent development are named. The change is really for the better, and whatever fast red is selected is ground in a vehicle of gold size japan and rubbing varnish, and not in the ordinary color grinders' japan, as that would take away too much of the brilliant effect.

Carmine No. 40 or French Carmine. - This brilliant red color, once so much in demand as a glaze, has also been relegated to the rear, but is, however, still found on the coach color lists.

Being used merely as a glaze over ornamenting in orange or vermilion or fast reds on work where cost is not considered seriously, it must be ground exceedingly fine in a pale rubbing varnish, and, as a rule, the proportions are 40 parts by weight of the dry pulverized carmine to 60 parts of varnish, the grinding being accomplished on a water-colored esopus stone mill of a size in proportion to the batch. Carmine being the most expensive material in the line of reds, waste cannot be well afforded.

English Vermilion. - The usual proportion for a grinding is 82 parts by weight of the dry pigment and 18 parts gold size japan. Must be ground on watercooled esopus stone mills of slow speed and great care taken not to have the stones set very tight, as the color is easily ruined by that operation.

Red Lake, Permanent. - Here the alizarine red lake is preferred and a good selection should be made. The dry color should be finely powdered and made bone dry in a suitable heating apparatus, 40 parts by weight of the dry material, 52 parts of hard gum rubbing varnish, pale, and 8 parts turps ground fine on a water-cooled esopus stone-mill will produce a red almost rivalling carmine in fire and distancing it by far in permanency.

Rose Lake or Geranium Lake is hardly ever called for in this line any longer, the coloring matter, constituting these pigments being too fugitive. Fast reds are being used instead.

Rose Pink is often called for ground in Japan when mahogany effect is desired in car work, etc., or in furniture factories, and 70 parts of dry pigment and 30 parts color grinders' japan is the proper proportion for mixing.

Road Cart Red. - This red was made to supply a demand for a red color to be used on low-priced vehicles whence it derived its name. The coloring matter used was of the same type as the azo scarlet or carmine substitute above referred to, mixed with artificial vermilion to give good body or hiding power. At present the low-priced para reds in japan have replaced this red. The better class of these reds is composed of 7 to 8 per cent pure para red toner with a base of barytes and whiting, 84 pounds of which and 16 pounds color grinders' japan constitute this color.

Indian Red. - The English importation of this is usually preferred here, although there are several manufacturers in the United States who have succeeded in making this artificial oxide of iron; 77 parts by weight of the dry color and 23 parts by weight of color grinding japan is the proportion required for the paste.

Tuscan Red. - While a Tuscan red, made from suitable oxide of iron with a para toner or toluidine red may exhibit quite a degree of permanance, it cannot surpass the material made from Indian red and alizarine red lake for durability and resistance to heat. A mixing of 40 parts by weight of Indian red, containing 96 per cent sesquioxide of iron, 20 parts by weight of blanc fixe, 12 parts by weight of alizarine red lake, and 28 parts by weight of color grinders' japan, will produce 100 parts by weight of a brilliant Tuscan red of great permanency of color on exposure, decided resistance to heat and not excessive in cost, compared with its value as a body color. For a color of lower price, increase the percentage of blanc fixe and decrease the percentage of lake.

Venetian Red. - In this case a bright red should be selected, one that does not contain less than 35 per cent of sesquioxide of iron and the pigment well dried before mixing with the color grinding japan, of which about 27 parts by weight are required to produce 100 parts paste in oil with 73 parts of the dry pigment. Must be ground on water-cooled mill to keep from gumming up.

Wine Color. - Some coach painters prefer a lake color of great richness, others desire a color that covers a suitable ground in one coat. The latter is best made with a base of Indian or Tuscan red, adding the necessary claret lake (magenta), grinding in color grinding japan. A wine color of rich effect cannot be produced as a body color, it must necessarily be transparent or at least semi-transparent. Color makers are now in position to offer fast claret lakes of great strength for this purpose, and it would be idle to suggest using the old line formulas of mixing various lakes.