Umber earth, as it is called in its native state, is found in many localities, but the best undoubtedly comes from the island of Cyprus. Other inferior qualities are found in England, Wales, France and the United States. That found in Germany is known as Cologne earth. The umbers, both raw and burnt, that are imported into this country nearly all come through Italian merchants, some of whom bring them over to their country from Cyprus, assort them into grades and calcine or burn the largest portion in their own factories. Livorno (Leghorn) is the port from whence most all of the Italian ochers, siennas and umbers, along with pumice stone, talc, tripoli, etc., are exported, although there are a few houses in Rome in this exportation business. Of late years some Greek merchants have attempted to export crude umber into the United States in a large way, attempting to dispose of large cargoes here, but the writer has not heard that the scheme was really successful. The reason for this failure can be attributed to the fact that in the first place, the crude material requires careful sorting, and that a great deal of useless ballast in moisture and waste material would have to be freighted, and, above all, there is no established factory in this country where sorting and assembling the material could be done at as low a cost as it can be done in Italy at establishments equipped for this very purpose. The importation of umber, raw and burnt, in lump form, has fallen off to a considerable extent, but to a greater degree in the raw or crude state. It used to be the practice of a few of the largest color grinding establishments in this country to import raw umber earth as well as burnt umber in pieces and in lump form, and drying out the mining moisture in the raw earths in kilns or on steam pans, put the pieces or lumps through crushers and then pulverize the same on dry color mills of 30 to 42-inch diameter buhr stones. This, of course, meant considerable expense, when the loss in drying and the cost thereof, as well as the handling and grinding was figured, but even when there was as high as from 23 to 32 per cent mining moisture, the total cost of the powdered raw umber was considerably below the price charged for the imported powdered goods, and the product was far more uniform, and still lower in price or cost than was charged by some of the jobbing houses or importers for similar qualities. The difference can be accounted for in several ways. There was a certain percentage of mining moisture allowed by the exporter on the other side, the tariff on unwrought earth was very low in comparison with the finished dry umber in powdered form, and there was neither the middleman's profit nor warehouse or storage charges to be paid the importer. Then again, the goods coming in very large quantities by sailing vessel or tramp steamer, the freight was lower, also, than the usual rate. This system of importing the material in the lump form could, as a matter of expediency, be carried on only by very large consumers, who were in possession of the dry color grinding apparatus and the storage room, as well as wharfage or railroad siding facilities. However, some of the few concerns that still adhered to this practice, have lately abandoned it and are purchasing the powdered goods instead.