Fig. 111 - Stop Chamfered Edges.
Fig. 112 - Guide for cutting Chamfer Stops
The stop will be sloped off with the chisel, and he must be a poor worker who cannot do this with sufficient accuracy. If, however, he wants a mechanical aid or guide here is one (Fig. 112), which he can easily make for himself as follows: - Rabbet out a piece of wood, or join two pieces square with each other. Any edge, or rather arris, will lie within these. Now cut one or both ends off on the bevel as shown, and use the bevel as a guide for the chisel when cutting.
As the word arris has been used, it may be well to explain its meaning, for though its use is not by any means exclusively confined to cabinet-making, it is not one of those 'familiar in our mouths as household words.'
It denotes the sharp edge formed by the meeting of the surface or wide part and of the edge or thickness of a board, or for that matter other things as well.
The actual chamfer, as has been stated, may be done with the scratch, which is useful enough when the amount of chamfering to be done is not sufficiently great to get a special tool, and the worker has sufficient nous to cut away some of the arris and so reduce the amount of 'scratching' to be done. The tool used to cut may be a chisel or rabbet plane, which will not work close up to the stop unless it be a bull-nose, when it will leave very little space to be cleaned up with the chisel. With careful management a bull-nose does as well as a special plane, which differs little from it except that it has an adjustable fence or fences on the sole. By regulating the distance between these, the bevelled edges of which fit to the edge and face of the wood being chamfered, the chamfer can be made of any size.
A tool for a similar purpose is little but an old woman's tooth with a V-shaped sole. The V of course is rectangular, and the depth or width of the chamfer is determined by the depth to which the iron projects. As any one can make this tool for himself, a front view showing shape of sole and edge of iron is given in Fig. 113. At the commencement the iron should not be down too far. This tool will cut right up to the stop.
Fig. 113.- Stop Chamfering Tool.
Grooved panels, with a V-shaped grooving running diagonally, are often used in connexion with chamfered edges, and the two are taken as a plain rendering of Gothic in furniture. The cuts, Figs. 114 and 115, show a door so treated and a section of the grooving. This may either be done with a plane having a V sole or with the useful scratch, though this latter is somewhat awkward for the purpose. The grain of the wood should run with the grooving or channelling, and joints should be arranged to be in the bottom of the V. These considerations are not always observed. As the shoulder of the scratch cannot be worked along the edge of the panel to be channelled, a strip of wood must be secured to the panel to act as guide to the scratch. The work in the absence of a V plane may also be done, and perhaps more easily than by the scratch, with an ordinary rabbet plane. The channel is first partly cut with a chisel, and the rabbet plane held leaning sideways does the rest.
Beaded edges are often used with great effect, and afford an easy means of relieving monotony, for a very plain piece of furniture may have a highly decorative effect by their judicious use.
They may be made with the scratch.
In Figs. 116 to 119 a few suggestions are given suitable for bearers, ends, and front edges generally. The arris bead on Fig. 116 is worked in two halves, the stock or fence of the scratch being worked along the edge and on the surface of the wood.
Fig. 114. - Door with Chamfered Edges, Frame, and V-grooved Panel.
Fig. 115. - Section of V Groove.
Fig. 116. - Moulded Edges.
It is often desirable to stop a bead instead of running it straight through to the end of the piece. This is impossible with a beading plane, and the scratch, though it will stop anywhere, does not leave a clean end. This must be finished off with a chisel in order to get it clean and sharp, as in Fig. 120. The same appearance may be got by running the beads through, cutting away at the part to be stopped, and filling in the groove thus left with a piece of wood matching as nearly as possible, and after the glue has set, levelling off the surface. This leaves a very clean finish, but unless the let-in wood matches well with the other is apt to look artificial. Fig. 121 shows the details.
Figs. 117 to 119. - Moulded Edges.
Figs. 120 to 122. - Stopped Beads.
A simpler method is by bevelling off the beads with a chisel, as in Fig. 122.
Bands of beading of a different colour from the surrounding wood are sometimes seen, as satinwood beads in walnut, walnut or mahogany in ash, etc.; but unless judiciously done the effect is garish. When the beading is black, or of a darker colour than the rest of the work, it is often stained so by the polisher, but of course this cannot be done when the beading is lighter. When this is wanted, a groove must be ploughed to the required depth, which need seldom be more than 1/8 in., and filled in either with strips already moulded, or plain to be worked afterwards.
Flutes or hollows are worked in the same way as beads, and are often used in decorating ends, as in Fig. 123. Small flutes and beads, when combined on an edge, are generally in workshop parlance classed as beading, though of course when merely a verbal definition is given greater accuracy is necessary. Black or darkened flutes are often seen. They are coloured by the polisher.
Fig. 123. - Flutes.