The planes most commonly used are the jack plane, fore plane, jointer plane, smoothing plane, and block plane. The jack plane is used to cut the rough surface of boards and timbers, and to cut the high places of a board before using the jointer. It is the roust about plane of planes. The fore plane is used to fit sash and doors. It is also used in cutting the uneven edge of a board before using the jointer. The jointer is used to straighten and join boards, and is frequently used instead of the fore plane to fit the sash and doors. The smoothing plane is used to surface a board to a smooth surface. Begin planing at the fore end of the board and work back, also at one side and work across. Shove the plane straight forward, not swerving it sideways. In shoving the plane forward near the end of stroke, gradually raise the back end of the plane to raise the bit at end of stroke to prevent any plane marks, and keep it raised high enough to clear the bit in drawing the plane back. Drawing the plane back with the weight on the bit dulls it more than the cutting. Those methods should be observed with all planes. The block plane is used to plane the ends of board and mould joints, and in close fitting. The bit should be ground back at 60 degrees, keeping the edge squared to the sides, then finish on an oil stone to a keen edge. (Fig. 76.)

Planes 80

Fig. 76


Set 2"x4" around the building about 10' apart for upright posts. Nail a clear strong board on the 2x4 at the proper height for the scaffolding. Saw a notch in a short board, or 2x4 the width of the bracket. Nail the block on the bracket and to the building. Put a tie of 1x6 sheeting in line of the brackets to all upright posts, put a cross brace on the uprights, from bottom to line of scaffolding, using 2"xl0" or 12" plank for the scaffolding. High scaffolding should have heavier upright posts.