Treating on lines and the square also giving practical rules and methods on carpentry

Title | The Carpenters' Guide |

Author | Harvey Miller |

Publisher | Joe Wilson Ptg. Co |

Year | 1920 |

Copyright | 1920, Joe Wilson Ptg. Co |

Amazon | The carpenters' guide |

- Introductory Set
- A long felt need on a work to explain carpentry in a brief, practical way has induced me to write this little book, giving rules and illustrations that will be helpful as a guide to the Mechanic, Appr...

- How To Locate A Building
- Draw a line in the street 200 feet or more, in front of the intended structure parallel with the street or road, then measure in from this line at two different points to establish the line for the fr...

- How To Stake Out A Building
- From the established corners on front wall measure and stake the approximate location of the other corners and drive three stakes in a triangle two or more feet outside of the wall lines, place two bo...

- The Grade Of The Building
- The grade is an established line from which all measurements are taken for the height of the building and the depth of the basement. This grade line is the top of the wall or bottom of the sill. Take...

- How To Level A Building
- To the stake designating the height of wall or grade line nail the batter boards leveled on the triangle stakes. From this corner level and sight to all other corners and mark the height of grade line...

- How To Square A Foundation
- The front wall line, parallel to the street and leveled to grade, remains unchanged. Rule 1. From the intersection of the lines at the established corners of the building, measure 6' on one line and ...

- How To Excavate A Basement
- From the lines that have been leveled and squared to the grade, plumb down for the excavation. Cut a stake the length of intended depth of the basement from the grade line to the basement floor - all...

- Forms For Basement Walls
- All bearing walls should have footings sufficient in width and depth to carry the weight of the building (see fig. 7), excavate and put in the footings before setting forms for the walls. The forms fo...

- Concrete Mixture
- For walls use 1 part of cement to 6 or 7 parts of coarse sand and gravel, depending on the sharpness of the sand. For concrete five parts of coarse sand and gravel for the floors and walks, take one p...

- How To Place Sills And Girders
- When the wall is seasoned and forms removed, lay the sills on the wall, the dimensions of the intended structure leveled and bedded in mortar. Where a girder is required, double two to four thicknesse...

- Spacing And Placing Joists
- To space the joists, measure and mark 15 and 17 from the corner on the sill and continue to space 16 from these markings, set the joists between these lines and they will be 16 on centers across t...

- Placing Plates
- Place and line 2x4 plates around the outer edge of the building, then measure and locate all partitions, marking them on the plate and sub floor with a chalk line. Line all partitions on the sub floor...

- How To Cut And Place Studdings
- From the desired height of ceiling, deduet the thickness of the plates for the length of the studding. After this has been done and a pattern made, nail a small block to one end allowing it to extend ...

- How To Trim Openings
- Cut a gauge stake two inches longer than the height of doors, plus the thickness of the finish floor, and mark on the studding for the bottom of the top trimmer for door and window openings. For all w...

- How To Plumb A Building
- When all walls and partitions have been raised and fastened in place, nail a temporary brace board at the top to each corner, extending diagonally to the bottom plate. With a straight edge and plumb p...

- Names Of Rafters
- There are different kinds of rafters, viz: Common, Jack, Cripple, Hip and Valley (see Fig. 13). A common rafter extends from the plate to the ridge. A Jack rafter extends from the plate to intersectio...

- How To Find The Base Feet In A Rafter
- To find the number of base feet of a rafter is absolutely necessary in framing a roof. The base of a rafter is the number of horizontal feet to be spanned by the rafter. (See fig. 21.) It is advisable...

- Height Of Ridge
- When there is a number of inches rise given to one base foot, the height of ridge is equal to the given rise as many times as there are base feet in the rafter. Add the height of the heel of the rafte...

- Pitches of Roof
- Use the 2' square to determine the number of inches rise and pitch. 1/2 Pitch is 1/2 of 24 or 12 rise to 12 base. 1/3 Pitch is 1/3 of 24 or 8 rise to 12 base. 1/4 Pitch is 1/4 of 24 or 6 ri...

- Fence And Gauge For The Square
- For rafter and stair framing, it is advisable to use a square gauge. It simplifies the uses of the square by fastening the gauge at the base and rise for the desired pitch. (See figs. 25 and 26.) A ga...

- The Square
- It is important to understand the use of the square. The base, rise and hypotenuse of the square used in the different methods herein given solve the practical use of the square. Every inch to 8 rise...

- Common Rafter
- There are as many base feet in a common rafter as there are feet in half the width of the gable, or half the width of the building in a hip roof. (See fig. 21.) The length of a common rafter in one b...

- The Jack Rafter
- There are as many base feet in a Jack rafter as there are number of feet on the plate from the corner to the center of the rafter. (See fig. 21.) The base 12 and the same rise used in the common raft...

- Cripple Rafters
- There are as many base feet in a cripple rafter as there are number of feet on the plate from the corner of the hip to the corner or center of the valley rafter. (See rules for base, fig. 21.) To obt...

- Hip Rafter
- There are as many base feet of 17 as there are number of feet in half the width of the building. (See rules for base of rafters, fig. 21.) To obtain the length of a hip rafter, lay the square on the ...

- Valley Rafters
- There are as many base feet in a valley rafter as there are number of feet in 1/2 the width of the gable. (Fig. 21.) To obtain the length of a valley rafter, lay the square on the rafter at 17 base a...

- How To Sheath A Roof
- Line the bottom board with the face of the rafters. It is rulable to space them 2 to 4 apart and continue this method until sheeting is completed. At the gable ends of the building, let the sheeting...

- Outside Finish
- The outside finish consists of facier, plancier, frieze, corner, base boards and moulds. The facier board is the finish around the outer edge of the roof. (Fig. 45.) The plancier board is the finish f...

- How To Shingle A Roof
- Nail a shingle at each end of eave to be shingled and let them extend 1 1/2 or the desired distance over the sheeting for the drip. Put a shingle nail in the end of the shingles and draw a line taut ...

- Door And Window Frames
- Most frames are made at the planing mills, but when it is more convenient to build them, the following suggestions will be helpful. For a door or window, rabbet across the side jambs 3/8 for the head...

- Porch
- Line and nail a 2x4 on the joists or sheething the thickness of the porch flooring lower than the door sill, the length of the porch, less the thickness of the headers. Cut the headers the length of t...

- Lathing
- The lath should be spaced 5/16 apart to admit the plaster for a good clinch, breaking joints every ninth lath. Put grounds around the inside door openings 3/4 thick by 1 wide. Plumb and straight ed...

- Inside Finish
- The inside finish consists of door jambs, casings, head trimmers, base, window stool, aprons, stops, picture mould, closet strips, doors, windows, etc. Scrape and sand out all defects and plane marks ...

- Cases And Cupboards
- Lay the outline of cupboard or case on the wall by marking height and where shelves are desired. These markings or heights can be made on a pole or gauge to get height where it is inconvenient to mark...

- Stairs
- Stair framing is figured by run and rise and is not computed by base feet, as in nearly all construction. The run of the step is the horizontal or tread line and the rise is the perpendicular or rise ...

- Garage
- Locate, stake and establish the grade. Then level, line and square as described in the fore part of the book. (See index for same.) Set the forms for the concrete wall, setting bolts in the concrete a...

- Corn Crib
- The modern corn crib should be planned and constructed with the conveniences to conserve labor. Handling corn in ear or shelled will be no more the burden of the farm if properly planned. In the cons...

- Hen House
- Poultry raising is one of the commercial pursuits of the day. The care and shelter of the hen is absolutely necessary. The hen house herein described is 12'xl6'. Fig. 55 The foundation to extend...

- Hog House
- A brief description and cut of a hog house in this booklet may advance some ideas profitable to the farmer as well as the mechanic. The plan in the illustration is 24x40' and should be set east and we...

- How To Assemble A Roof
- We will use the same figure for this illustration that it may be easily understood, but the rules given in this roof have all the cuts for any regular roof. Though there may be a number of projections...

- Truss Framing
- Truss framing is figured with the base 12 and any rise to meet the objective point. The rules given in rafter framing will give any cut in truss framing, by raising and lowering the rise, the hypoten...

- Practical Hints
- To divide a board in 2 or more equal parts, lay the rule across at any number that will give 2, 3 or more equal parts and mark and line for same, and there will be no fractional parts to figure. (Fig....

- Straight Edge
- A straight edge to level walls and buildings should be made of 1 1/8x8xl6' of edge grain lumber to prevent warping. Straighten the bottom of the straight edge. Measure to the center of the board and...

- Test A Square
- Place and fasten a straight edge on a smooth wall or surface, set the square on the straight edge and draw a line the length of the square on the wall. Reverse the square to the opposite side of the l...

- Test A Level
- Drive a nail in a smooth even wall, to set one end on. Adjust the other end until the bulb is centered on the glass, and draw a line the length of the level. Reverse the opposite end of the level on t...

- Test A Plumb
- Place the plumb on a smooth wall, hold the plumb to center the bulb and draw a line the length of the plumb stock, reverse the plumb to the opposite side of the line and draw a line the length of the ...

- Work Bench
- A work bench 8' or 10' long, 2' in width and 3' high, or height of thigh joint, makes a convenient bench to move to any room in finishing, and when a longer length is needed, hook on an extension. It ...

- Saw Trestle
- The height of trestle for the average man is nearly 2'. The top should be made of 2x6x4', the legs of 1 1/8x5 boards. The bottom of the legs may be tapered 1 narrower than the top. Set the legs i...

- Saws
- The length of saw and gauge of tooth for practical purposes: The Rip Saw, 28 blade, 5 points to 1. The Cutoff Saw, 26 blade, 8 points to 1. The Finish Saw, 22 blade, 11 points to 1. The Compa...

- Setting And Filing Saws
- Set every other tooth with the point out, then reverse the saw and set the other side in the same manner. Place the saw in the vise with the teeth as close to the clamp as possible for filing to preve...

- Planes
- The planes most commonly used are the jack plane, fore plane, jointer plane, smoothing plane, and block plane. The jack plane is used to cut the rough surface of boards and timbers, and to cut the hig...