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The place to learn how to make a camp fireplace and how to cook, is at home, and as good a spot as any to build the fireplace is the back yard. A small campfire can be built in the yard with safety if a pit is made to hold the fire. On the following pages will be found suggestions for building fireplaces, an oven, and a camp-stove.

The Fireplace with Trenched Fire-Pit, shown in Fig. 503, will keep the fire within a confined area. Remove the sod from a piece of ground several feet in length, 3 inches wide at one end, and 12 inches wide at the other end, running this trench in the direction of the prevailing wind. Each side of the trench, pile the sod removed and spread several inches of earth on top, to make banks as shown in Fig. 503. Properly banked, you can stand a coffee-pot over the narrow end of the trench, larger utensils over the center, and still larger utensils over the wide end. Pots may be hung over the fire by fastening a wire above it in the manner shown, then bending pothooks similar to that shown in Fig. 504, out of wire, by which to suspend the pots.

The customary way of hanging pots over a cooking fire, at camps, is by means of forked sticks suspended from a horizontal pole that is supported in the crotch of a crotched

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Fig. 503. - Fireplace with Trenched Fire-Pit Fig. 504. - Wire Pothook

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Fig. 505. - Fireplace with Circular Fire-Pit pole erected at each end of the fire-pit.

The Fireplace with Circular Fire-Pit, shown in Fig. 505, differs from the fireplace just described only in the shape of the fire-pit. A piece of sheet-iron can be placed across the fire-pit to stand utensils on.

The Fireplace with Above-Ground Fire-Pit. shown in Fig. 506 must have its walls built of moist earth or clay, so that the material can be packed together nicely. Tin cans are placed in the walls, three on a side, as shown in

Fig. 507, to support the cross wires that extend from side to side for u t e n s i 1 s to stand upon. Tin cans exposed to a fire will soon crumble to pieces, therefore several inches of earth should be piled up against the cans inside of the fire-pit to protect them. Figure

508 suggests how you can use stakes instead of tin cans for supporting the cross wires.

The Camp Oven shown in Figure

509 is started in the same way as the fireplace in Fig. 506, except that a pit

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Fig. 506. - Fireplace with Above Ground Fire-Pit

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Fig. 507. - Fireplace Utensil Support

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Fig. 508. - Another Scheme for Utensil Support

5 or 6 inches deep is hollowed out in addition to building the above-ground fire-walls. Figure 511 shows how the oven shelf is supported on tin cans; also, how a piece of

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Fig. 510. - Sheet-Iron Front Fig. 509. - Camp Oven stovepipe is stood erect at the rear end of the fire-pit, for the chimney.

Pile up earth around the base of the stove-pipe, and build up the sides of the oven with earth moistened enough to make it pack together firmly. At a height of 12 or 14 inches above the oven shelf, level off the sides, and across them set a piece of sheet-iron to support the top of the oven. Then cover this top to a depth or 3 or 4 inches with earth. Bank up earth around the base of the oven to make the walls solid, and protect the tin cans that support the shelf-wires, with a covering of earth, so that the fire will not burn them through.

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Fig. 511. - Oven Fire-Pit, Smoke-Pipe and Shelf

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Fig. 512. - Wash-Boiler Camp Stove

The oven front (Fig. 510) is a piece of sheet-iron with wire loops fastened to the upper edge to provide for hanging it from the oven top. Rest a stick across the side walls of the oven, and hang the sheet-iron front from nails driven into it.

To cut down the draft, pile up bricks in front of the fire-pit opening, or, lacking bricks, use a piece of sheet-iron. A damper can be set in the smoke-pipe to help check the draft, or a piece of sheet-iron can be laid across the top of the pipe. A Wash-Boiler Camp Stove. Every time the author sees a discarded wash-boiler in a vacant-lot or scrap heap, he wonders why some boy hasn't seen possibilities in it, and taken it home. You can make a dandy camp-stove like that shown in Fig. 512, out of a boiler, and there are other ways of making good use of one. In addition to the boiler, you will need a section of 4-inch stovepipe, a damper, and some tin cans.

Cut three openings in the wash boiler bottom, 4 inches in diameter, one for the stove-pipe, the other two for cooking utensils to stand over; and in the end of the boiler farthest from the stove-pipe cut an opening for a fuel doorway. The cutting can be done best with tinsnips, but a can-opener will answer the purpose if you haven't a pair of snips.

The piece of tin removed from the fuel doorway must be made into a door (Fig. 513) by fastening strips of tin to its edges (B and C, Fig 514) to make it wide enough to overlap the edges of the doorway. Attach the strips with carpet tacks. Punch holes in the tin to drive the tacks through, and clinch the tack ends. Hang the door with hinges made of pieces of wire (D, Fig. 513), passing the wires through holes punched through the edge of the door and edge of the boiler, and twisting the ends together. A simple catch for the door is made of a screw-hook (E, Figs. 513 and 515), and a

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Figs. 513-515. - Details of Door for Camp Stove section of a broom-handle (F). Punch a hole through the stove door for the shank of the screw-hook to slip through, close enough to the front edge so when the hook is turned horizontally its tip will catch upon the inside surface of the boiler. Screw the screw-hook into knob F.

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Fig. 516. - Camp-Fire Tripod Spread

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Fig. 517. - Tripod Folded

Make stove covers out of tin cans, and for

A Fire Shovel, fasten a piece of tin in the slotted end of a stick. Just such a shovel as this is shown in front of the stove, in Fig. 512. It makes an excellent shovel for removing ashes.

There are all sorts of patented camp-fire grates and racks, made collapsible to simplify transportation, but

The Camp-Fire Tripod shown in Fig. 516, made of three

Io-inch iron shelf-brackets bolted together as shown in Fig. 517, is all that a boy could wish for a one-receptacle fireplace. Figure 516 shows the tripod spread, Fig. 517 shows it folded for transporting, and the photograph of Fig. 518 shows the stove in use. You can use the tripod fireplace in the backyard or at camp.

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Fig. 519. - A Varnish-Can Lantern (See Chapter 23 (Back Yard And Camp Lamps)).

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Fig. 518. - Using the Shelf-Bracket Camp-Stove Tripod (See Chapter 22 (Back Yard And Camp Fireplaces)).