Paragraph 48. There are so many kinds of pine, and the term is used so generally in speaking of all of them that it is almost impossible to give a clear idea of the nature of the wood without dividing it into separate classes.

There are two general classes of pines, the hard and the soft pines; the hard pines are also called yellow pine, while the soft pines are spoken of as the white pine.

Hard Pine

Hard pine wood is stiff and quite strong, very resinous, shrinks moderately, seasons rapidly, works well, but is not so durable as soft pine when exposed to weather conditions. It does not hold paint well but takes a fine varnish finish and for that reason is used quite extensively in cheaper grades of inside finish work.

While the term Hard Pine is used in the carpenter's trade to refer to any kind of pine other than white pine, yet there are about ten distinct varieties, of which only five are of any great importance to the building trade.

The Long Leaf Southern Pine, also known as Georgia pine, grows to a very large size, and furnishes a very hard and strong wood; it is one of the most agreeable to work and is therefore quite popular in construction work.

The Short Leaf Southern Pine is very much like the Loblolly pine. It grows in Missouri and Arkansas, and is also found in North Carolina and Texas.

The Loblolly Pine grows to a very large size; it is frequently confused with the long leaf pine, but its timber is coarser, lighter and softer. It is found in several of the southern states.

Yellow Pine, sometimes called Bull Pine, forms extensive forests in the Pacific and Rocky Mountain regions. The wood is very variable, with wide sap wood. Most of the hard pine of the west is of this variety.

Norway Pine is the northern hard pine; it grows in the northern states and Canada. This variety does not form forests but grows in small groves, usually with white pine; its timber is fine grained and of a very light color, it is largely sap wood and is not durable..

Soft Pine

Soft Pine, white pine, pumpkin pine or sugar pine are names which are used in different localities in referring to the soft variety of pines.

White pine lumber is very valuable because of its many excellent features; it is of uniform texture, works easily without splitting, seasons well and shrinks but little, does not warp badly, holds paint well, and is very durable. White pine was once used considerably for all kinds of outside work, such as weatherboarding and shingles, but the advancing price has caused it to pass almost completely off the market of general building materials. It is now used only for finer construction work and for pattern making.