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Shop Projects Based On Community Problems | by Myron G. Burton



Modern Educators have come to realize that the only avenue of approach to the child's mind is through the light of his experience, therefore recent text-books are being so arranged as to utilize the things with which the child comes in contact outside of school as well as in the classroom in guiding him into new fields of knowledge. Under the old school the plan of the text-book was to arrange the subject-matter in a logical and scientific way, giving but little consideration to the immediate interest of the child, or to the natural steps of his development. This so-called logical arrangement placed the paramount consideration on a skillful organization of the great store of racial subject-matter, and was no doubt quite satisfactory to the learned scholar or the mature mind provided with a broad field of experience...

TitleShop Projects Based On Community Problems
AuthorMyron G. Burton
PublisherGinn And Company
Year1915
Copyright1915, Myron G. Burton
AmazonShop Projects Based on Community Problems

Myron G. Burton, A.B., M.S.

Director Of Vocational And Manual-Training Instruction In The Public Schools Of Kansas City, Missouri

Shop Projects Based On Community Problems
-Preface
Modern Educators have come to realize that the only avenue of approach to the child's mind is through the light of his experience, therefore recent text-books are being so arranged as to utilize the t...
-Community Problems
Great Captains of industry, professional men and those who are giving their attention to various practical lines have recently raised a great criticism on the public schools because, as they claim, th...
-Suggestions To Teachers
The Following suggestions to teachers are intended to give a broad conception of the underlying principles upon which this text is founded, and to offer means by which it can be made most effective in...
-Suggestions To Teachers. Continued
The entire design of the book is not merely to set forth a few plans and drawings for the construction of shop projects, but to give the work the broadest possible application, and thus develop the mo...
-Instructions To Students
IN undertaking this shop work you will find many things which are a little different to the regular recitation work to which you have been accustomed in the other subjects. Here you will have a chance...
-Introduction To Section I
IN this section will be found an introduction to elementary tool processes and the simpler hand tools. The laying out tools, such as the ruler, try-square and marking gauge are introduced. The plane, ...
-Match Box
Materials Basswood (Chap. III., Par. 31). 1 pc. 1/4x4x8 1/2 S 2 S Back. 3 pcs. 1/4,x2 1/4x9 S 2 S Sides, front and bottom. 1 pc. sandpaper 2x2. 20-3/4 No. 18 brads. Introductory Statemen...
-Match Box. Continued
The Bottom And Front The piece l/4x2 1/4x9 is large enough to make both the bottom and front of your match box. Plane one edge perfectly straight and square (Chapter II., Paragraph 4). Plane one e...
-Necktie Rack
Materials Basswood (Chap. III., Par. 31). 1 pc. 3/8x4 3/4xl6 1/2 S 2 S Back. 1 pc. 3/8xl 1/2x 8 S 2 S Brackets. 1 pc. 1/4xl 1/4xl41/2 S 2 S Cross rod. 2-3/4 No. 6 R. H. brass screws...
-Necktie Rack. Continued
The Brackets Lay out a design for the end brackets. This design should be laid out carefully on a piece of paper before you attempt to draw it on your material. The suggestion for original designs wi...
-Hand Loom
Materials Basswood (Chap. III., Par. 31), or any soft wood. 2 pcs. 3/4xl 3/4xl2 S 2 S Ends. 2 pcs. %xl1/2xl3 S 2 S Sides. 8 dozen 1 No. 17 brads. Introductory Statement One of the olde...
-Box Kite
Materials Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or any-soft wood. 4 pcs. 5/16x5/16x30 S2S Corner strips. 2 pcs. 5/16x5/16x23 S 2 S Cross braces. 5 pcs. 5/16x5/16xl2 S 2 S Braces. Paper and string ...
-Box Kite. Continued
Side Cross Rails Make the four side cross rails the required dimensions. (Be sure they are exactly the same length). Fasten them to the corner strips with small brads; cut short blocks about 3/4 lon...
-Coat Hanger
Materials Poplar (Chap. Iii., Par. 42) or any soft wood. 1 pc. 7/8x4 3/4x18 S 2 S Hanger. 1 pc. Cop. Bess. rod 5/32 x8 Hook. 1 Cop. washer 5/32. Introductory Statement A coat hanger shou...
-Coat Hanger. Continued
The Hook You are to make your own hook from a piece of bessemer rod. (If you do not care to do this, you may purchase a screw hook from a hardware store). You will find it a very interesting piece of...
-Broom Holder
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or any soft wood. 1 pc. 3/4x3 l/2x9 1/2 S 2 S Back. 1 pc. 3/4x3x8 S 2 S Hanger. 2-I 1/2 No. 10 F. H. B. screws. Introductory Statement The ...
-Broom Holder. Continued
The Holder Prepare a working face (Chapter II., Paragraph 2); plane one edge perfectly straight and square and mark it the working edge (Chapter II., Paragraph 4). Plane one end perfectly square with...
-Bench Hook
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or any soft wood. 1 pc. 7/8x4 3/4x19 S 2 S Base and blocks. 4-1 1/2 No. 10 F. H. B. screws. Introductory Statement While most work benches are pro...
-Seed Corn Rack
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or any soft wood. 1 pc. 7/8x2x36 Rough or S 2 S 10 nails, l0d common. Introductory Statement People who are interested in agriculture, or in fact i...
-Seed Corn Rack. Continued
Assembling With a sharp steel scraper, or a keen plane set to take a very thin shaving, remove all pencil or tool marks. Be sure to leave the corners perfectly straight and sharp. From the back side ...
-Feed Scoop
Materials Poplar (Chap. III., Par. 42) or any soft wood. 1 pc. 7/8x5 1/2x6 1/2 S 2 S Back. 1 pc. 1 1/8xl 1/8x5 1/2 rough Handle. 1 pc. galvanized 10xl5 Body of Scoop. 5 dozen 3/4 No. 1...
-Feed Scoop. Continued
The Body Of The Scoop The body of this scoop is to be made of galvanized sheet iron; it will require a piece 10 long, and wide enough to form the bottom plus the two sides (15). With the square lay...
-Bracket Shelf
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or any soft wood. 1 pc. 7/8x6 1/4x21 1/2 S 2 S Top. 1 pc. 7/8x7 1/4xl9 1/2 S 2 S Back. 1 pc. 7/8x5xl0 S 2 S Brackets. 12-6d finishing nails...
-Bracket Shelf. Continued
The Top Plane one surface for the working face (Chapter II., Paragraph 2). Plane one edge perfectly square with the working face and mark it the working edge (Chapter II., Paragraph 4). Plane one end...
-Research
DID you ever think how much valuable information you may gather from the things which lie all about you ? The people of your neighborhood are daily doing hundreds of things which you may sometime be c...
-Introduction To Section II
BY the time the student has reached this section he should be able to understand the three regular views of the working drawing. The purpose of this section is to review and develop the principles and...
-Bread Or Meat Board
Materials Black Walnut (Chap. III., Par. 44) or Gum (Chap. III., Par. 37) or any dark wood. 2 pcs. lx2 3/4x14 1/2 S 2 S Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29) or Maple (Chap. III., Par. 41) or any light-c...
-Bread Or Meat Board. Continued
Assembling The Work Glue the dowels in one edge of the center piece. Spread an even coating of glue on the edges which are to be joined. Carefully drive one dark piece down on the dowels. In like man...
-Camp Stool
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or any soft wood. 4 pcs. 7/8x l 1/2x22 1/2 S 2 S Legs. 2 pcs. 7/8x l 1/2xl3 1/2 S 2 S Top strips. 3 pes. 1/2xl2 dowel rod. 1 pc. canvas for s...
-Camp Stool. Continued
Assembling Assemble with glue. If desired brads may be driven through the leg in the stationary joints of the dowels, also into the top pieces. Be careful not to nail, or get any glue, on the dowel j...
-Book Rack
Materials Chestnut (Chap. III., Par. 35) or any hard wood. 1 pc. 5/8x5 1/4x28 Bottom and ends. S 2 S. Introductory Statement A small bookrack for use on a library or study table is very impo...
-Drawing Board
Materials Basswood (Chap. III., Par. 31) or White Pine (Par. 48). 3 pcs. 7/8x6x26 S 2 S Top. 1 pc. 1/4 dowel 12 long. 2 pes. 7/81 1/2xl6 S 2 S Cleats. 10-114 No. 10 F. H. B. screws. Int...
-Drawing Board. Continued
The Dowels By studying the drawing you will notice that the boards should be so assembled that the grain is reversed. Carefully lay out the dowels (Chapter II., Paragraph 18); bore for the dowels (Ch...
-Windmill
Materials Basswood (Chap. III., Par. 31) or White Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48). 2 pcs. 7/8xl 3/4x 9 S 2 S Fans. 1 pc. 7/8x 7/8 x21 S 2 S Shaft and upright. 1 pc. bright tin 5x7. 2-1 3/4 N...
-Windmill. Continued
Assembling The Fan When the fan blades are completed, fasten the cross-lap joint with small brads. These brads must be driven near the corners of the joint so as not to be in the way of boring the ho...
-Child's Swing
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48). 2 pcs. 7/8x6xl2 S 2 S Bottom. 2 pcs. 7/8x1 1/2xl2 S2S Bottom battens. 7 pcs. 7/8xl1/8xl2 S 2 S Rails. 1 pc. 1/2 dowel 30 long. 8-1 1/2 No. ...
-Child's Swing. Continued
The Side And Back Strips You will probably have to rip these strips from a wider board. If you do, select a working face (Chapter II., Paragraph 2); .prepare a working edge (Chapter II., Paragraph 4)...
-Fly Trap
Materials Basswood (Chap. III., Par. 31). 8 pcs. 3/8xlxl2 1/2 S 2 S Sides. 8 pcs. 3/8xlx 7 1/2 S 2 S Cross pieces. 5 pcs. 1/2x3/4x9 S 2 S Top pes. 8 pes. 1/4x3/4x9 S 2 S Trim. 3 dozen...
-Fly Trap. Continued
The Side Cross Rails Rip out and plane the side cross rails in the same manner in which you have made the side strips. Cut all these rails the required length, as shown in the drawing. They may be ea...
-Milking Stool
Materials Beech (Chap. III., Par. 32) or any hard wood. 1 pc. I 1/2x9 1/4x 9 1/4 S 2 S Top. 4 pcs. 1 1/4xl 1/4xl2 S 2 S Legs. Introductory Statement The milking stool is usually such a rud...
-Harness Rack
Materials Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29) or any strong wood. 1 pc. 7/8x2 1/4xl5 1/2 S 2 S Back. 1 pc. 7/8x2 1/4xl4 S 2 S Front brace. 2 pcs. 7/8x2 1/4x8 S 2 S Side braces. 1 pc. 3/4'x6 1/2...
-Harness Rack. Continued
Side Braces Select the best surface of the piece from which the side braces are to be made, and mark it the working face (Chapter II., Paragraph 2). Plane one edge for a working edge (Chapter II., Pa...
-Flower Trellis
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or any soft wood. 1 pc. 7/8x2x 5 S 2 S Upright. 7 pcs. 7/8xlx30 S 2 S Cross strips. 2 pcs. 3/4X5x71/4 S 2 S Brackets. 2 1/2 dozen 6d finishin...
-Flower Trellis. Part 2
The Cross Strips If you are cutting this material from stock it will be necessary to rip out the cross strips. In this case select the best surface of your stock for the working face (Chapter II., Pa...
-Flower Trellis. Part 3
Suggestions For Community Research No. 1. Do you know of a pattern-maker's shop in your community? If you do, visit it and ask the pattern-maker to show you the kind of drawings from which he works. ...
-Introduction To Section III
BY the time this section is reached students should be pretty thoroughly familiar with the more common elementary tool processes and should have but little difficulty in interpreting the working drawi...
-Sleeve Board
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or any soft wood. 1 pc. 7/8x5 x24 S 2 S Top. 1 pc. 7/8x5 3/4x20 S 2 S Base. 2 pcs. 7/8x4 x 7 S 2 S Blocks. 8-l 1/2 No. 10 F. H. B. screws....
-Water Wheel
Materials Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29) or any hard wood. 8 pcs. l/4xl 3/4x4 1/2 S 2 S Paddles. 2 pcs. 5/8x4 1/2x4 1/2 S 2 S Wheels. 1 pc. l 1/8xl 1/8x 6 Cylinder. 2 pcs. 3/4x2xl5 S 2 S ...
-Water Wheel. Continued
Cylinder Or Axle You are to plane a cylinder or axle which will fit the holes which you have bored in the paddle wheels. To plane this cylinder, first plane the stick perfectly square, then plane off...
-Window Box
Materials Poplar (Chap. III., Par. 42) or any soft wood. l pc. 7/8x6 3/4/x35 S2S 2 pcs. 7/8x6x37 S 2 S 2 pcs. 7/8x6x 6 1/2 S 2 S 2 1/2 dozen 6d finishing nails. Introductory Statement ...
-Window Box. Continued
The Bottom Select the best surface of the bottom piece and mark it the working face (Chapter II., Paragraph 2). Prepare a working edge (Chapter II., Paragraph 4). Gauge the width on both surfaces (Ch...
-Miter Box
Materials Poplar (Chap. III., Par. 42) or Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48). 1 pc. l 1/2x3 3/4x24 1/2 S2S Bottom. 2 pcs. 7/8x4x241/2 S2S Sides. 10-l 1/2 No. 10 F. H. B. Screws. Introdu...
-Picture Frame
Materials Oak, plain or quartered (Chap. III., Par. 29). 2 pcs. 5/8x2x22 S 2 S 2 pcs. 5/8x2xl8 S 2 S 12-1/4 brads. 2 screw eyes, No. 114. Wire picture cord, 28. Introductory Statement Ev...
-Picture Frame. Continued
Forming The Rabbets In picture frame material it is necessary to form a rabbet to receive the glass and the picture. If you have a regular rabbet plane, use it for this work; if not, you may use the ...
-Dishcloth Rack
Materials Poplar (Chap. III., Par. 42) or any-strong wood. 1 pc. 5/8x6 1/2x 7 S 2 S Back. 2 pcs. 5/8x3 x 7 S 2 S Top and bottom. 5 pcs. 7/8X 7/8X21 S 4 S Hanger. 1 pair tight pin hinges ...
-Dishcloth Rack. Continued
The Hanger Strips You will probably have to rip these strips from stock. To do this, select a working face on your stock (Chapter II., Paragraph 2), plane a working edge (Chapter II., Paragraph 4); g...
-Book Shelves
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or Oak, plain or quartered (Chap. III., Par. 29). 5 pcs. 7/8x7 3/4x33 S 2 S Shelves. 2 pcs. 7/8x7 3/4x52 S 2 S Sides. 3 dozen 6d finishing nail...
-Sled
Materials Poplar (Chap. III., Par. 42) 2 pcs. 3/4x3 3/4x36 S 2 S Runners. 2pcs. lx2x11 1/2 S2S Cross braces, lpc. 3/8x9 1/2x22 S2S Top. 4-6d finishing nails. 1 dozen 1 1/4 brads. 2 ...
-Sled. Continued
The Cross Braces Square the stock for one of the cross braces (Chapter II., Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4). Lay out the tenon (Chapter V., Paragraph 67) the exact size of the mortise which you have cut in th...
-Sawhorse
Materials Beech (Chap. III., Par. 32) or any hard wood. 1 pc. 1 1/2x 3 3/4x36 1/2 S 2 S Saddle. 4 pcs. 7/8x 3 3/4x25 S2S Legs. 2 pcs. 7/8x5 1/2x 9 S 2 S Braces. 24-l 1/2 No. 10 F. H. ...
-Sawhorse. Continued
Assembling The Legs And Saddle Fasten the legs in place by means of screws. The holes in the legs should be large enough to receive the body of the screws freely, but not loosely. Countersink the hol...
-Hatchet And Hammer Handles
Materials Hickory (Chap. III., Par. 39). 1 pc. 1 1/8 x 1 3/4 x 14 l/2 rough (split). Introductory Statement Everybody is more or less familiar with the use of a hammer, for there is possibly...
-Hatchet And Hammer Handles. Part 2
Finishing After you have made the shape of the handle, and have it almost the desired dimensions, it should be finished with a sharp steel scraper (Chapter II., Paragraph 16); it may be scraped with ...
-Hatchet And Hammer Handles. Part 3
Review Questions And Problems 1. Why is it necessary to square the stock before attempting to lay out work which is made up of circles or curves ? 2. In assembling with screws, how large should the ...
-Introduction To Section IV
This section presents a number of modifications and developments of the elementary tool processes and principles set forth in the earlier sections. Students who have successfully accomplished the work...
-Wash Bench
Materials Cypress (Chap. III., Par. 46) or any soft wood. lpc. 7/8x13 l/2x35 1/2 S2S Top. 2 pcs. 7/8x11 3/4x18 1/2 S2S Legs. 2 pcs. 7/8x4x34 S2S Skirt boards. 2 1/2 doz. 8d finishing ...
-Wash Bench. Continued
The Top Select the best surface for the working face (Chapter II., Paragraph 2); prepare a working edge (Chapter II., Paragraph 4); prepare a working end (Chapter II., Paragraph 5). Lay out and make ...
-Nail Or Screw Tray
Materials Poplar (Chap. III., Par. 42) or any soft wood. 2 pcs. l/2x5 3/4xl6 S 2 S Bottom. 2 pcs. 1/2x3 1/4x16 1/2 S 2 S Sides. 2 pcs. 1/2x3 1/4x11 1/2 S 2 S Ends. 1 pc. 1/2x5xl6 S 2...
-Nail Or Screw Tray. Continued
The Bottom The bottom may be made of two pieces of material, in which case the joint should come exactly under the central partition. This will prevent the joint from showing from the top side of the...
-Candle-Stick
Materials Oak, quartered (Chap. III., Par. 29 and 51). 1 pc. 7/8x4 3/4x4 3/4 S 2 S Base. 1 pc. 1 1/2xl 1/2x4 3/4 S 4 S Upright. 1 pc. 3/8xl 1/2x4 S2S Handle. 1 pc. 3/8x2x2 S 2 S Top...
-Candle-Stick. Continued
The Top Boring the hole in this top piece is a very delicate operation. If you have a Forstner bit, it can be used for this purpose. If not, an ordinary bit, if very sharp, will do the work satisfact...
-Hand Mirror
Materials Mahogany (Chap. III., Par. 50), Walnut (Chap. III., Par. 44), Cherry (Chap. III., Par. 34), Gum (Chap. III., Par. 37). 1 pc. 3/4x6 1/4x11 S 2 S 1-5 D bevel plate mirror. 1 pc. rat...
-Hand Mirror. Continued
Fastening The Mirror In Position Gut a piece of blotting paper, or any other soft paper, the exact size of the mirror; lay it in the bottom of the opening before putting in the mirror; this will prev...
-Flower Pot Stand
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or any soft wood. 2 pcs. 7/8x5l,4x35 S 2 S Shelves. 1 pc. 7/8x5l4x44 S 2 S Top. 2 pcs. 7/8x4l/2x36 S 2 S Legs. 3 pes. 7/8x4 1/2x35 1/2 S...
-Bird House
Materials Basswood (Chap. III., Par. 31) or any soft wood. lpc. 3/4x8xl4 1/2 S2S Bottom. 2 pcs. 5/8x5 1/2xl0 1/2 S 2 S Sides. 2 pcs. 5/8x6x8 S 2 S Ends. 1 pc. 3/4x3 1/4 dowel rod. 1 ...
-Bird House. Continued
The Ends Square the stock (Chapter II., Paragraphs 2, 3, 4, 5). Cut the ends the exact shape and size shown in the drawing, making sure that the edges are perfectly straight, and that the ends are ab...
-Wagon Jack
Materials Beech (Chap. III., Par. 32) or any hard wood. lpc. 1 3/4x3 3/4x16 1/2 Base. 2 pcs. 7/8x3 3/4x25 Sides. 1 pc. 7/8x3 1/4x30 Lever. 3-3/8x3 carriage bolts 3-% washers. 1 pc....
-Wagon Jack. Continued
The Lever Square the stock of the lever (Chapter II., Paragraphs 2, 3, 4, 5); lay out and execute the dimensions of the lever as shown in the drawing. In forming the notches in the top part of the le...
-Seed Tester
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or any soft wood. 2 pcs. 7/8x4x37 S 2 S Sides. 2 pcs. 7/8x4xl6 S2S Ends. 9 pcs. 7/8x4xl5 S 2 S Bottom. 6 pcs. 7/8x3 1/2xl8 S 2 S Legs. ...
-Seed Tester. Continued
The Corn Rack The corn rack consists of strips through which l0d nails are driven at an angle; each nail to support one ear of corn. This provides room for 100 ears, thus making it possible to test a...
-Evener And Singletree
Materials Hickory (Chap. III., Par. 39) or Straight-grained Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29). Singletree - 1 pc. 2x2 3/4x35 rough or S 2 S Evener - 1 pc. 2 1/8x4 3/4x48 rough or S 2 S Introduct...
-Farm Gate
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48). 7 pcs. 7/8x4xl2' S 2 S 5 dozen 8d common nails. 2 pcs. 7/8x4 1/2xl2' S 2 S 6 pcs. 7/8x4x 5' S 2 S 28-1/4x2 3/4 carriage bolts, with washers a...
-Farm Gate. Part 2
Boring In boring for the bolts it will be well to bore until the point of the bit begins to show through on the opposite side of all the holes; then turn the gate, and complete the boring from the op...
-Farm Gate. Part 3
Review Questions And Problems 1. In building a bench, what is the purpose of the Skirt Boards ? Do you know of any other article on which Skirt Boards could be used in similar manner? 2. What are th...
-Introduction To Section V
The work of this section offers wide opportunity for the exercise of the originality of each student. If the tool processes already set forth have been duly mastered, and if the work of design and dra...
-Shoe-Polishing Box
Materials Cypress (Chap. III., Par 46) or any soft wood. 2 pcs. 7/8xl2xl3 1/2 Legs. 1 pc. 7/8x 9xl7 1/2 Side. 1 pc. 7/8x 6 1/2xl7 1/2 Side. 2 pcs. 7/8x 7xl9 Top. lpc. 7/8x3y2xl...
-Shoe-Polishing Box. Continued
Assembling The side pieces are to be nailed on to the end pieces. Be sure to make them perfectly even on the outside. Use finishing nails and drive them carefully (Chapter II., Paragraph 21). The bot...
-Tabouret
Materials Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29), plain or quartered. 4 pcs. 1 1/2x1 1/2xl8 S4S Legs. 2 pcs. 7/8x6 x11 S 2 S Shelf. 2 pcs. 7/8x6 1/2xl3 S 2 S Top. 1 pc. 1/2 dowel 24 long. Introduct...
-Foot Stool
Materials Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29). 4 pcs. 1 3/4xl 3/4'xl0 S 4 S Legs. 2 pcs. 3/4xl 1/2x15 S 4 S Cross rails. 2 pcs. 3/4x1 1/2xl2 S 4 S Cross rails. Any soft wood. 2 pcs. 7/8x2xl5...
-Foot Stool. Continued
The Top Cross Rails In like manner cut the top cross rails of the soft wood material. You will notice that all of the relish is on the top side of the top rails; this is arranged in this manner to av...
-Folding Game Table
Materials Chestnut (Chap. III., Par. 35) or any soft wood. Sufficient number of pieces to make 1/2x31x31 S 2 S Top. 2 pcs. 7/8x2 x30 Top braces. 4 pcs. 13/8xl3/8x27 Legs. 2 pcs. l 3/8...
-Folding Game Table. Continued
The Legs Although the material for the legs is furnished S 4 S, you should test them carefully with a try-square and resurface them on all sides, making them perfectly square. (Chap. II., Par. 2, 3, ...
-Stepladder
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or any-soft wood. 2 pcs. 7/8x45/8x5' 2 S 2 S Sides. 4 pcs. 7/8x5 1/2xl6 1/2 S 2 S Steps. 1 pc. 7/8x7xl7 S 2 S Top. 2 pcs. 7/8xl3/4x5' S 2 ...
-Automobile Creeper
Materials Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29). 4 pcs. 3/8xl 7/8x38 Slats, hard wood. 2 pcs. 3/8xl 7/8x30 Slats, hard wood. 3 pes. 7/8x2xl6 Cross pieces, hard wood. 1 pc. 7/8x4xl0 Head piece, s...
-Shop Tool Case
Materials Yellow Pine (Chap. III., Par. 48) or any soft wood. 3 pcs. 7/8xl0x36 1/2 S 2 S Side and partition. 2 pcs. 7/8xl0x48 1/2 S 2 S Bottom and top. 3 pcs. 3/8xl 3/4x35 S 2 S Casing...
-Shop Tool Case. Continued
Top And Bottom Prepare the top and bottom the dimensions given in the. drawing. These two pieces must be made exactly the same size. Assembling Nail this framework together with plain butt joints (...
-Work Bench
Materials Maple (Chap. III., Par. 41). 1 pc. hard wood l 1/2xl2x 50 Top. 1 pc. hard wood 7/8x8 1/2x 50 Tool trough. 1 pc. hard wood 7/8x5 1/2x 50 Back brace. 1 pc. hard wood 7/8xl 1/4...
-Stanchion
Materials Beech (Chap. III., Par. 32) or any hard wood. 2 pcs. l 1/8x2 1/2xl0 1/2 S 2 S Ends. 2 pcs. 1 1/8x2 1/2x49 S 2 S Sides. 2 pcs. chain 12. 1 pc. small anchor chain 14. 2 angle iro...
-Chicken Brooder
Materials Cypress (Chap. III., Par. 46) or any soft wood. 8 pcs. 7/8x 6 1/2x20 S 2 S Sides and roof. 7 pcs. 7/8x 4 1/2x25 S 2 S Back, back door and roof. 3 pcs. 7/8x 6 1/2x25 S 2 S Bott...
-Chicken Brooder. Part 2
The Rear Door The rear door is for the purpose of cleaning out the house. It is not expected to be used to put in chickens; this is to be done at the top door. Notice that this small door also has ba...
-Chicken Brooder. Part 3
Review Questions And Problems 1. What likeness in construction did you notice in the shoe polishing box and the wash bench? 2. What were the principal points of difference between these two articles...
-Introduction To Section VI
This section is intended only for students who have had sufficient training in bench work to enable them to understand working drawings, to originate simple designs with some taste and judgment and to...
-Porch Swing
Materials Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29). 14 pcs. 3/8xl 7/8x3' 6 Slats. 7 pcs. 3/8xl 7/8x3' 8 Slats. 8 pes. 3/8xl 7/8x 8 Arm slats. 6 pcs. 7/8x3x 24 Arm and curved back pieces. 2 pcs. 7...
-Jardiniere Stand
Materials Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29), plain or quartered. 2 pcs. 7/8x4 1/4x35 S 2 S Uprights. 2 pcs. 7/8x2 3/4x35 S 2 S Uprights. 4 pcs. 7/8x6 3/4x14 S 2 S Sub. base and top. 4 pcs. 7/8x3...
-Tool Chest
Materials Redwood (Chap. III., Par. 49) or any soft wood. 4 pcs. 7/8x 9 1/2x35 S 2 S Top and bottom. 2 pes. 7/8xl0 1/4x35 S 2 S Sides. 2 pes. 7/8xl0 1/4xl8 S 2 S Ends. 2 pcs. 7/8x 4...
-Tool Chest. Continued
Assembling Join with a plain butt joint. (If you care to take the trouble, you may use the dovetail method shown in the suggestions). Nail through the sides into the ends, making the outside corners ...
-Piano Bench
Materials Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29), plain or quartered. 2 pcs. l 1/8x8x36 1/2 S 2 S Top. 2 pcs. 7/8x3 1/4x35 S 2 S Side rails. 2 pcs. 7/8x3 1/4xl4 S 2 S End rails. 4 pcs. 1 3/4xl 3/4...
-Piano Bench. Continued
Corner Brace Blocks These blocks are to be fastened on the inside of the railing with glue and wood screws. This operation must be carefully done to avoid spreading and damaging the joints at the cor...
-Magazine Rack
Materials Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29), plain or quartered. 4 pcs. 1 3/4xl 3/4x40 S 4 S Corner posts. 2 pcs. 7/8x8 1/4x30 S 2 S Top. 2 pcs. 7/8x4 1/2x25 Rear cross rails. 4 pes. 7/8x4 1/2...
-Telephone Stand And Stool
Materials Stand: 2 pcs. 7/8x9 1/4xl9 S 2 S Top. 3 pcs. 7/8x4 3/4xl5 S 2 S Top rail. 4 pes. 1 1/2xl 1/2x30 S 4 S Legs. 3 pes. 1/2x2l4xl5 Trim. 2 pes. 3/4x6 1/2xl3 Shelf (soft wood...
-Telephone Stand And Stool. Continued
The Bottom Cross Rails The bottom cross rails are to be joined to the corner posts with mortise and tenon joints. Square the stock, and make these pieces the dimensions given in the drawing. Lay out ...
-Medicine Or Shaving Cabinet
Materials Poplar (Chap. III., Par. 42) or any-soft wood. 1 pc. 7/8x5 1/2xl8 S 2 S Top. 2 pcs. 7/8x4 3/4x24 S 2 S Sides. 1 pc. 7/8x4 3/4xl5 S 2 S Bottom. 1 pc. 7/8x3 1/4xl5 S 2 S Apr...
-Medicine Or Shaving Cabinet. Continued
The Bottom The bottom is to be made the width of the sides, less the thickness of the back. You will notice in the drawing that the back laps down upon the bottom. Square the stock and make this piec...
-Cedar Chest
Materials Red Cedar (Chap. III., Par. 45). Sufficient number of pieces to make: 2 sides 3/4x11 1/4x43 S2S 2 ends 3/4x11 1/4xl8 S 2 S 2 pcs. 3/4x17x43 S 2 S Top and bottom. 2 pcs. 1/2x...
-Writing Desk
Materials Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29). 4 pcs. 1 1/2xl 1/2x32 S 4 S Legs. 1 pc. 7/8x5 3/4x28 S 2 S Back rail. 1 pc. 7/8x4x28 S 2 S Front rail. 2 pes. 7/8x5 3/4x20 S 2 S Side rail. 3 p...
-Library Table
Materials Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29). 4 pcs. 1x7 1/4x49 S2S Top. 2 pcs. 7/8x5 l/4x48 S 2 S Top side rails. 2 pcs. 7/8x5 1/4x28 S 2 S Top end rails. 2 pcs. 1 3/4x1 3/4x26 S 4 S Leg c...
-Library Table. Part 2
The Shelf Square the stock and prepare the shelf, which is to serve as a stretcher, and brace the lower end of the legs. This shelf is set into the cross rails, and is fastened to them with screws fr...
-Library Table. Part 3
Review Questions And Problems 1. Mention two or three points which should have careful consideration in designing a porch swing. 2. Name three kinds of wood which would be suitable for a porch swing...
-Chapter I. Mechanical And Shop Drawings
The subject of drawing is very important in all lines of industrial work. A photograph, picture or perspective drawing shows how a thing will appear, but does not give dimensions nor show the detail o...
-Chapter I. Mechanical And Shop Drawings. Part 2
Views In mechanical or shop drawing it is customary to give three views of the thing which is to be built, and of an ordinary piece of work the three views will be sufficient. However, if the thing i...
-Chapter I. Mechanical And Shop Drawings. Part 3
The Drawing Instruments Drawing instruments are furnished at prices ranging from a few cents up to many dollars; your work will not demand a very expensive set, but it should contain at least the fol...
-Chapter I. Mechanical And Shop Drawings. Part 4
Other Articles Needed One-half dozen thumb tacks with which to fasten the drawing paper to the board. One rubber eraser. One bottle of waterproof black drawing ink. One penholder and fine pen-poin...
-Chapter I. Mechanical And Shop Drawings. Part 5
Lettering There is nothing which adds to the general appearance of a drawing so much as neat, attractive lettering. This does not mean that fancy and elaborate decorative lettering is advised, but th...
-Construction Problems
(See Plate L, Page 299.) Problem No. 1 - To Bi-Sect a Given Line. Let line AB be the given line. With a pencil compass set at a distance greater than one-half the length of line AB, using A as a cen...
-Construction Problems. Part 2
Supplementary Problems Problem A - To Erect a Perpendicular and the End of a Given Line. Draw a line AB. Assume a point P, any convenient position outside this line. With P as a center, and a radius...
-Construction Problems. Part 3
Supplementary Problems Problem E - A Circle Contains 360 Degrees. Draw any circle and with a T-square draw a horizontal diameter passing through point O, the center. At point O draw a vertical diame...
-Construction Problems. Part 4
Supplementary Problems Problem I - The Sum of the Three Angles of Any Triangle Is Equal to 180 Degrees (the Total Angles on One Side of a Straight Line), Having Two Angles Given, to Find the Third An...
-Construction Problems. Part 5
Problem M -Supplementary Problems To draw a line tangent to a circle at a given point on the circumference. With O as a center and any radius draw a circle; let P be the given point on the circumfer...
-Squaring Stock
Paragraph 1. In undertaking any piece of work the very first thing to do is to square the stock, that is, prepare a working face, a working edge and a working end, from which measurements are to be ta...
-Preparing A Working Face
Paragraph 2. A working face is to be planed perfectly smooth and straight. This process is called surfacing. To do this, fasten the board in the tail vise on your bench. See that your plane is sharp a...
-Testing The Surface With A Square
Paragraph 3. With your try-square blade (which is perfectly straight) held in the position shown in Figure 14, you may test the surface to make sure that it is even. Push the square along the entire s...
-Preparing A Working Edge
Paragraph 4. After the working face is completed the next step in squaring stock is to prepare a working edge. This is done by planing one edge at a perfect right angle to the working face. To do thi...
-Preparing A Working End
Paragraph 5. After you have prepared a working face and a working edge, the next step in squaring stock is to prepare a working end. To do this means to make one end of the material perfectly square w...
-Gauging Lines With The Marking Gauge
Paragraph 6. The marking gauge is used to draw lines parallel with the working edge. By the use of the thumbscrew the marking gauge can be set to gauge lines at any distance from the working edge. To ...
-Gauging Lines With Lead Pencil And Ruler
Paragraph 7. It is sometimes more desirable to gauge a line with a lead pencil and ruler than with the marking gauge. With the left hand hold the ruler at the desired distance from the end, that is, i...
-Gauging Lines With Lead Pencil And Fingers
Paragraph 8. It is sometimes quite convenient to gauge lines without the use of a ruler or marking gauge, but simply by the use of the pencil and fingers. This is particularly true in gauging lines wh...
-Boring Entirely Through Material
Paragraph 9. In boring a hole through a piece of material which is likely to have both sides subject to view, it is necessary to take some precaution to prevent the bit from splintering the wood when ...
-Boring To Depth
Paragraph 10. In boring for mortises, and sometimes in other lines of work, it is necessary to bore holes to a given depth. This is a little difficult unless you have some way of measuring, for it is ...
-Boring Perpendicularly
Paragraph 11. It is quite frequently necessary to bore holes perpendicularly into a piece of material. To do this it is necessary to hold the bit constantly at a right angle to the material in every d...
-Boring At A Given Angle
Paragraph 12. It is sometimes necessary to bore holes at a definite angle. To do this determine the desired angle and set the T bevel. In starting the bit hold the properly set T bevel in such a posit...
-Boring For Dowels
Paragraph 13. In boring in the edge of material for dowels, it is well to square a line across the surface of the board as a guide to determine when the bit is held exactly perpendicular to the workin...
-Sawing A Tenon
Paragraph 14. In forming tenons for mortise and tenon joints, the tenon should be sawed to the gauge line, as shown in Figure 31. The material should be fastened in the vise at an angle; this will mak...
-Sandpapering A Cylinder
Paragraph 15. In shop work it is sometimes necessary to make a cylinder without the use of a turning lathe. This is done with a plane and sandpaper. After all plane marks have been removed as nearly a...
-The Use Of A Steel Scraper
Paragraph 16. The purpose of the steel scraper is to finish and to produce a fine surface on the board by removing all tool marks and other blemishes. It is practically impossible to finish the surfac...
-Sandpapering A Surface
Paragraph 17. In sandpapering a surface, the purpose is to make it absolutely smooth. Sandpapering should not be begun until the surface has been made as smooth as possible with a plane or a scraper. ...
-Laying Out For Dowels
Paragraph 18. It is very necessary that the laying out for dowel boring should be absolutely correct, otherwise the two edges will not join perfectly when the assembling is attempted. The edges to be ...
-Laying Out And Planing A Chamfer
Paragraph 19. The chamfer is a very important feature in a great many lines of mechanical work. You should learn to make a chamfer accurately. To do this a chamfer must be carefully gauged. This gaugi...
-The Use Of The Bench Hook
Paragraph 20. The bench hook is used in holding small pieces of material while they are being sawed, as already shown in Figure 21, Paragraph 5. Place the bench hook in such a position that one block ...
-Driving Nails Or Brads With A Hammer
Paragraph 21. In driving nails or brads, the hammer handle should be grasped in about the position indicated in Figure 37. A mistake frequently made is that -of holding the hammer handle too close to ...
-Toe-Nailing
Paragraph 22. The process of toe-nailing is quite frequently used, particularly in rough construction work, where one piece of material joins another with a butt joint. This process does not occur ver...
-The Use Of Corrugated Nails
Paragraph 23. It is sometimes necessary to join two pieces of material with a straight butt joint where toe-nailing would not be satisfactory, or, at least, inconvenient. For this purpose the corrugat...
-Laying Out Half-Pitch Rafter Or Brace Cut
Paragraph 24. In laying out the half-pitch cut (Chapter V, Paragraph 75) use the large steel square, as shown in Figure 40. Lay the square on the working face of the material in such a way that the sa...
-Laying Out The Third-Pitch Brace Or Rafter Cut
Paragraph 25. In laying out a third-pitch brace or rafter cut (Chapter V., Paragraph 76), lay the steel square on the working face of the material in such a position that the figure on the tongue is e...
-Laying Out The Quarter-Pitch Brace Or Rafter Cut
Paragraph 26. In laying out a quarter-pitch cut (Chapter V., Paragraph 77), lay the steel square on the working face of the material in such a position that the number of inches indicated on the blade...
-Reading And Writing Dimensions Of Lumber
Paragraph 27. In stating the dimensions of lumber, the thickness is always given first, then width, and last, length. Instead of writing out the word inches, the sign - two dots (written ) - is gener...
-Lumber Measure
Paragraph 28. In measuring the distance from one city to another we use the mile as the unit. In measuring grain we speak of so many bushels. Coal is measured by the ton. We are all, more or less, fam...
-Chapter III. Varieties Of Timber
A Great many men have spent almost their entire lives studying the nature of timber and still find there are new things to learn. You cannot expect to master the subject during your study of this text...
-Oak
Paragraph 29. The most important hardwood trees are the oaks. The oaks have been called the Royal Family of American woods. This reputation has been given this class of trees on account of their bro...
-Oak. Continued
The White Oaks (Acorns ripen in one year.) White oak, Valley oak, Brewer oak, Sadler oak, Pacific post oak, Gambel oak, Post oak, Chapman oak, Bur oak, Overcup oak, Swamp white oak, Cow o...
-Ash
Paragraph 30. There are a great many different kinds of ash called by various names, such as black ash, blue, white, red, green, prickly and water ash. They are all very similar in general appearance ...
-Basswood
Paragraph 31. Basswood is sometimes called American linden, lin, bee or lime tree. Basswood is very important among the timbers of commerce because it is still plentiful and very cheap. The wood is ve...
-Beech
Paragraph 32. The beech tree is pretty generally known by its smooth bark of gray color. Practically everyone is familiar with the small, triangular nuts which the beech tree bears. Beech is a very st...
-Birch
Paragraph 33. The United States produces several varieties of birch trees, although it is hardly worth while to attempt to distinguish between them. The birch is easily recognized by its smooth bark. ...
-Cherry
Paragraph 34. Cherry was once a rather plentiful wood, but it is now becoming very scarce, and for that reason so expensive that it is not in very general use. Our cherry lumber comes from what is com...
-Chestnut
Paragraph 35. Chestnut wood is not a very valuable cabinet wood. It is light in weight, has very open pores, is rather soft and does not possess very great strength. It shrinks very badly and checks c...
-Elm
Paragraph 36. Perhaps the most popular of all shade trees is the elm. This is true because of its size and the great beauty and grace of its branches. It is a very hardy tree and rather rapidly growin...
-Gum
Paragraph 37. Sweet or red gum and the sour or black gum are the two kinds common to the United States. The most important is the sweet gum, which is perhaps more commonly known as red gum. It is some...
-Hackberry
Paragraph 38. Hackberry is a timber which grows in nearly all parts of the eastern United States and is usually a tree of medium size, but in some localities, particularly in the lower Mississippi val...
-Hickory
Paragraph 39. For many years hickory has been one of the best known of all of our native timbers. The most familiar variety is the shell-bark hickory, so named from the tendency of the tree to shed it...
-Locust
Paragraph 40. There are several varieties of locust trees, but they are all very similar in their characteristics. They are known principally for their tough wood and coarse texture. They are very har...
-Maple
Paragraph 41. There are a number of different kinds of maple, known as the broad leaf maple, silver maple, red maple and sugar maple, sometimes called hard or rock maple. This is perhaps the most impo...
-Poplar
Paragraph 42. Poplar is sometimes known as whitewood or tulip, but in the lumber form is more often spoken of as yellow poplar. It was once one of our principal timbers of commerce. Only a few years a...
-Sycamore
Paragraph 43. The sycamore tree is usually a familiar tree, known by its very large size, huge trunk and the striking feature of its white bark. This whiteness of bark is seen particularly in the uppe...
-Walnut
Paragraph 44. Native walnut is divided into two general classes, black walnut and white walnut. The white walnut, or butternut, is of little importance among the timbers of commerce, but the black wal...
-Soft Wood Or Evergreen Trees
In most parts of the United States the hardwood forests have been so nearly exhausted that much of the timber of commerce now consists of some of the evergreen trees. ...
-Cedar
Paragraph 45. There are a great many differenet kinds of cedar but they have certain characteristics which are pretty generally common. They are usually lightweight wood, soft and stiff and of rather ...
-Cypress
Paragraph 46. Cypress is a wood that is very similar to the white cedar. It is a light wood of rather open pores. The boards can be had in great widths, because the trees grow very large. The wood is ...
-Hemlock
Paragraph 47. Hemlock is a wood of light reddish-green color, free from rosin pockets, but of very coarse fiber and usually cross-grained. Although very splintery and frequently defective on account o...
-Pine
Paragraph 48. There are so many kinds of pine, and the term is used so generally in speaking of all of them that it is almost impossible to give a clear idea of the nature of the wood without dividing...
-Redwood
Paragraph 49. Redwood is a very important member of the cedar family; it is famous for its magnificent size. It grows thickly along the coast in California. The wood is very light in weight and of a r...
-Mahogany
Paragraph 50. Although Mahogany is not a native wood and you may never have a chance to see a standing tree, or even a log of this kind, yet it is used so much in all kinds of fine furniture that you ...
-Lumber And Methods Of Sawing
Paragraph 51. While it is impossible to understand just how, and why, the tree plant produces a large and strong body, yet by careful study men have been able to find out much about how a tree grows. ...
-Plain Sawing
The most common method of sawing logs into lumber is what is called plain sawing, or slash sawing. This is really a matter of slicing the log into the required sizes, as shown in the following illustr...
-Quarter Sawing
In order to overcome this tendency to warp, another method of sawing has been devised. This method also adds great beauty to the appearance of the boards by exposing the medullary rays. This method is...
-Drying And Shrinkage Of Lumber
As lumber changes its size and shape in giving up its moisture or sap, it must not be used in any sort of fine construction until it has been sufficiently dried to make sure that it will hold its shap...
-Painting
Paragraph 52. There are a great many different methods and processes of wood finishing, but they all have about the same purpose in view, that of bringing out and protecting the beauty of the wood. O...
-Cabinet Finishing
Paragraph 53. We have just learned that paint is used principally on outside work or on things that are to be exposed to moisture and weather conditions. For cabinet work, all lines of furniture and i...
-Getting The Desired Shade Of Color By Staining Or Dyeing The Wood
Paragraph 54. After the surface of the wood has been made perfectly smooth and absolutely all imperfections removed, the next thing to do is to decide upon the desirable color. If the natural color of...
-Filler
Paragraph 55. We have already learned that the surface of a piece of wood is porous and that it is ready to absorb any sort of liquid which is applied. The stain which we have been discussing penetrat...
-Wax Finish
Paragraph 56. The wax finish produces a soft, mellow luster which has but little gloss. It is a popular finish for hardwood floors, and particularly mission furniture. Wax finish is easily and cheaply...
-Shellac Finish
Paragraph 57. The shellac finish is one of the hardest of all to produce. This is a finish which is known as the French polish. This should be undertaken only on small pieces of work where a very fine...
-Varnish Finish
Paragraph 58. The varnish finish is one of the best known of all wood finishes. Some of the very cheapest furniture is treated with an inferior grade of varnish. The customary way of finishing inexpen...
-Care Of Finishing Materials
Paragraph 59. One important point in producing a fine finish is to have the materials in good condition. No one can produce satisfactory finishes with dirty, stiff brushes, and finishing materials whi...
-Plain Butt Joint
Paragraph 60. The plain butt joint is the simplest and most frequently used joint found in woodwork. This joint consists of one piece of material sawed perfectly square and brought against the surface...
-Gained Or Housed Joint
Paragraph 61. The gained or housed joint is very similar to the plain butt joint except that in one piece of material (B) a gain, or dado, is cut the full size of the end of the other piece (A), This ...
-Crosslap Joint
Paragraph 62. The crosslap joint is sometimes called a half lap, because in making this joint the material is lapped by cutting out half the thickness from one piece, and the other half from the other...
-End Half-Lap Joint
Paragraph 63. The end half-lap joint is very similar to the crosslap joint. It takes its name from the fact that the material is cut in such a form that one piece laps over the other. This joint is u...
-Plain Miter Joint
Paragraph 64. The plain miter joint is the most frequently used in the construction of various kinds of rectangular frames, such as picture frames, window screens, frames of moulding in various trimme...
-Mitered Half-Lap Joint
Paragraph 65. The mitered half-lap joint is not used as commonly as the half-lap or mitered joint. However, it is sometimes desirable where the face of the work should show the appearance of a mitered...
-Blind Or Closed Mortise And Tenon
Paragraph 66. The closed mortise and tenon joint is one of the oldest and most commonly employed joints of woodwork. It is formed by cutting an opening, or mortise, in one piece of material B and shap...
-Through Mortise And Tenon Joint
Paragraph 67. The through mortise and tenon joint is very similar to the pinned mortise and tenon joint, with the exception that the mortise is cut entirely through the material B and the tenon A is a...
-The Open Mortise And Tenon Joint
Figure 53. Paragraph 68. The open mortise and tenon joint is used in the construction of rectangular frame work which employs heavy timbers. This joint, however, is not in very common use. It is ve...
-Round Tenon
Paragraph 69. The round tenon is used in joining materials where there is no great strain sidewise. It is rather easily constructed, but is not so substantial or rigid as the blind mortise and tenon, ...
-Keyed Mortise And Tenon
Paragraph 70. The keyed mortise and tenon joint is a very old one. It was formerly used only in heavy construction work or where great strength was required. In recent years, however, it has found its...
-Lapped Dove-Tailed Joint
Paragraph 71. The lapped dove-tail joint is simply a lapped joint in which the farther end of the tenon is wider than the portion that is next the shoulder. This makes it impossible for the joint to p...
-Dowel Joint
Paragraph 72. In making up wide boards, such as table tops, drawing boards, or any other cabinet construction in which it is impractical to use one wide board, dowels are frequently used. The purpose ...
-Tongue And Groove Joint
Paragraph 73. The tongue and groove joint is very commonly used in joining the edges of boards. This joint is found in all kinds of flooring and ceiling. It is also used somewhat in joining boards in ...
-Halved Splice
Paragraph 74. The halved splice is used for the purpose of splicing materials in length. This joint is very similar to the half-lap joint except that the material continues in one direction rather tha...
-Simple Half-Pitch Cut
Paragraph 75. In house or roof construction the cutting of rafters is a very essential matter. In simple roof work this is not difficult. Most roofs follow the regular standards of pitch, the most com...
-Third-Pitch Cut
Paragraph 76. A third-pitch roof is one in which the elevation of the rafters is one-third the width of the building. To illustrate: if a building is 18 ft. wide a third-pitch roof would be one in whi...
-Quarter-Pitch Cut
Paragraph 77. A quarter-pitch roof is one in which the elevation of the rafters is one-fourth the width of the building. To illustrate: if the width of the building is 24 ft., the elevation of a quart...
-Saws
Paragraph 78. There are a great many kinds of saws, each of which is constructed for some sort of special work. It is not necessary that you should learn all about the different kinds of saws; however...
-Rip Saws
Paragraph 79. The following illustration (Figure 63) shows the appearance of the teeth of a rip saw. The size of the teeth is somewhat exaggerated so you may be able to recognize the essential feature...
-Cross-Cutting Saws
Paragraph 80. The teeth of cross-cutting saws, instead of being filed square across like rip saw teeth, are filed at an angle, so that the cutting edge of each tooth approaches the wood very much in t...
-Saw Filing
Paragraph 81. Saw filing is a very technical piece of work. It should not be attempted without considerable study; it is not to be expected that elementary students should file their own saws in the s...
-Care Of Saws
Paragraph 82. All saws should be kept perfectly clean, free from glue, rust or anything else which would give the sides of the saw a rough surface. Saws should be wiped frequently with an oiled rag (d...
-Planes
Paragraph 83. A plane is one of the most important tools which you must learn to handle. There are a great many different kinds and sizes of planes designed for different sorts of special work. In the...
-The Jack Plane
Paragraph 84. The old-fashioned jack plane, which was formerly used for all sorts of general purpose work, has almost entirely gone out of use. The jack plane was constructed with a large open throat,...
-The Smoothing Plane
Paragraph 85. The smoothing plane is shorter than the jack plane, but is otherwise very similar in construction. It is used on small work and to plane broad surfaces. The fact that it has a short stoc...
-Block Plane
Paragraph 86. The block plane is very much smaller than the smoothing plane. Besides its size, it has certain other features which distinguish it from other planes and adapt it to the particular class...
-Parts Of The Plane
Paragraph 87. The following illustration shows a modern iron plane, which is typical of the present-day method of plane construction. This is a No. 5 bench plane, which you have just learned is freque...
-Plane Sharpening
Paragraph 88. As it is impossible to do satisfactory work with a dull plane, you must learn to sharpen your plane blades. This is not a difficult task, and if thoughtfully approached will give you no ...
-Grinding
Paragraph 89. For a great many years grinding on a grindstone has been the standard method of sharpening chisel and plane blades. If your shop is equipped with a grindstone you will find it convenient...
-Whetting
Paragraph 90. The final sharpening of the blade must be done on a fine whetstone of some sort. This may be a natural stone or an artificial stone made of carborundum. For the finishing work use a ston...
-Beveling On A Carborundum Stone
Paragraph 91. If your shop is not equipped with a grindstone, you will be able to get very satisfactory results by the use of a rather coarse carborundum stone. This is merely a whetstone with coarse ...
-Sharpening Chisels
Paragraph 92. Chisels are sharpened in almost exactly the same way as plane blades. The length of the bevel of the chisel will depend on the kind of work which it is to do. For heavy mortising or work...
-Sharpening Knives
Paragraph 93. Sloyd knives, pocket knives, butcher knives, and in fact almost all tools which belong to the general type of knives, may be sharpened in the manner already explained. These tools are, h...
-Care Of Sharpening Equipment
Paragraph 94. Somewhere in the shop there should be a definite place to keep the sharpening stone. A small table, or shelf on the wall, is very satisfactory for this purpose. The shelf or table should...







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