Oak (Chap. III., Par. 29) or any hard wood.
8 pcs. l/4"xl 3/4"x4 1/2" S 2 S Paddles. 2 pcs. 5/8"x4 1/2"x4 1/2" S 2 S Wheels.
1 pc. l 1/8"xl 1/8"x 6" Cylinder.
2 pcs. 3/4"x2"xl5" S 2 S Sides. 1 pc. 3/4"x2"x 7" S 2 S Top.
For hundreds of years water power has been used in driving the machinery of civilized man. When the invention of the steam engine was proven a success it was so general in its use that it threatened to take full place of water power. However, it has been proven that water power is very economical, and it is therefore being used in some of the largest power plants in the world. The great plants at Niagara Falls and Keokuk, Iowa, and in a great many other places, all depend on the same principle - that water flows down hill.
The water wheel given in this lesson will help you to understand in a simple way one of the earliest forms of using the force of water to turn a wheel. By experimenting with it in currents of water of different depth and different speed you will gain a great deal of information regarding water power.
Boys' Book of Inventions, Roy S. Baker. McClure, Phillips.
Toys and Toymaking, George F. Johnson. Longmans, Green & Co.
Manual Training Toys for the Boy's Workshop, Moore. Manual Arts Press, Peoria, III.
Water Wheels, Young Folks' Cyclopedia of Common Things, Champlin, Henry Holt.
The Conservation of Water, John Mathews. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston.
Damming the World's Greatest Rivers, Rogers. Scientific American Supplement, August, 1912.
Harper's Machinery Book for Boys. Harper & Brothers, New York.
U. S. Bulletin No. 150, Clearing New Land.
Suggestions For Original Design
If the material for the paddle is furnished in one long strip, you should make it the desired thickness and width before cutting off the separate pieces. Square this stock in the regular way (Chapter II., Paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). If the material is furnished you in short pieces, first plane out one paddle the desired dimension. To do this select the best surface and mark it the working face (Chapter II., Paragraph 2). Square one edge for a working edge (Chapter II., Paragraph 4). Gauge the width (Chapter II., Paragraph 6). Plane to the gauge line. Square one end (Chapter II., Paragraph 5); measure and cut the length. In like manner prepare the other paddles.
The paddle wheel consists of two disks, which should be laid out with the compasses and sawed out with the coping or compass saw. Be sure to make the two wheels exactly the same size. After they are sawed out, file the edges perfectly smooth. Bore the center holes on the point where the compass rested in drawing the circles (Chapter II., Paragraph 9). The paddles are to be inserted in the paddle wheels by gains or dados. These should be cut at equal distances around the circumference of the wheels so the paddles will stand the same distance apart. Carefully lay out these gains equally distant. Gauge their depth with the use of the pencil and finger (Chapter II., Paragraph 8). Saw the gains down to the gauge line and chisel them out with a very sharp chisel.