The Drawing Instruments

Drawing instruments are furnished at prices ranging from a few cents up to many dollars; your work will not demand a very expensive set, but it should contain at least the following tools of a very substantial quality. (See Figure 2.) One ruling pen. One steel spring bow pencil.

One steel spring bow pen.

One plane divider. Compasses with fixed needle point, pen and pencil points. Box of leads.

The other instruments sometimes found in the drawing set are very convenient but not absolutely necessary for your early work.

Figure 2.

Figure 2.

The Drawing Board

A drawing board is simply a plain, smooth board with at least one absolutely straight edge. It should be made of some kind of soft wood which will easily receive the thumb tacks; either white pine or basswood is generally used.

The size is not material, although a board about sixteen or eighteen inches wide by twenty-two or twenty-four inches long will be found satisfactory for school use. (See Figure 3.)

Figure 3.

Figure 3.

Triangles

You should have two triangles, one 8-inch 45-degree (See Figure 4) and one 8-inch 30x60-degree (See Figure 5). The triangles are to be used (resting on the top edge of the T-square, properly held) to draw all vertical and oblique lines. Triangles are made of various kinds of material, but the transparent ones will give best satisfaction.

Figure 4.

Figure 4.

Figure 5.

Figure 5.

The T-Square

The purpose of the T-square (which must have a perfectly straight blade) is to draw parallel horizontal lines; it should never be used to draw vertical lines. Its position is always against the lefthand edge of the board; it is not to be shifted about from one edge to another. The top edge of the square is to serve as a straight edge in ruling lines; the bottom edge is not to be used. (See Figure 6.)

Figure 6.

Figure 6.

Ruler Or Scale

The ruler, or scale as it is usually called, is a triangular boxwood rule with the various fractional parts of an inch accurately marked. (See Figure 7.) An ordinary flat ruler may be used, but it is difficult to make absolutely accurate measurements with such a scale. You will observe that the inch marks do not continue to the extreme ends of the triangular scale; this is done to make sure that if the ends are damaged accurate measurements will not be hindered. The scale is to be used only in making measurements; it should never be used in ruling lines.

Figure 7.

Figure 7.

The Irregular Curve

The irregular curve is used in drawing designs which employ curves that cannot be laid out with the compass. (See Figure 8.) It is not absolutely necessary, particularly in your early work, but it will be a great help in later work when you wish to lay out graceful designs.

Figure 8.

Figure 8.