1. The bench is the article most frequently used for holding the work steady during its execution. It is the most indispensable part of the apparatus required for slojd.

Fig. 5. Bench. 1I20.

Fig. 5. Bench. 1I20.

A bench top, B front bench vice, C back bench vice, D bench well, E bench drawer or till, F front rail of bench box, aa bench pegs or hooks, 66 holes for bench pegs, c vice tongue or key, ee screw-bolts, / back rail of bench box, gg vice-screws, h front rail of bench.

The Single Bench (Fig. 5) is practically a strongly constructed table, heavy enough to stand steady during the work.

The bench top consists of a strong, hard, close piece of plank about 3 inches thick. For the purpose of holding the work fast it is provided either with one screw or two, arranged in a particular way, called the back bench vice and the front bench vice. A complete bench (Fig. 5) has both; one of simpler construction (Fig. 8) has only the back bench vice. At one end of the bench-top, to the right of the worker, a rectangular piece is cut away from the anterior edge, its length being parallel to the edge, and where this piece has been cut away a prismatical frame-work is moved by the turning of a wood-screw. The nut into which this screw catches is firmly fixed to the end of the bench top. The frame-work is directed partly by the screw, partly by separate bolts, and the screw is held fast by means of a wedge or flat pin, which catches like a fork in a groove on the screw.

A complete bench.

Back bench vice.

This arrangement is called the back bench vice. The framework is perforated perpendicularly by one or more square holes, from 4 to 6 inches apart, and a row of similar holes is introduced in the bench top, in a straight line with those in the frame-work. When a plank is to be held in a horizontal position on the bench, a bench peg is placed in a hole in the bench vice, and another in a hole in the bench top at a distance corresponding to the length of the plank, and the screw is applied. Care must be taken that the head of the bench peg does not rise above the upper surface of the wood, and also that, during planing, the iron of the plane does not come in contact with the head of the peg, a fault often committed through carelessness by beginners.

The bench pegs (Fig. 6) are rectangular pieces of iron from 8 to 10 inches long, which fit rather loosely into the holes of the bench top, and are provided on one side with a steel spring, in order that they may remain fixed at any desired height. The head of the peg is double-grooved, to hold the work securely. To make room for the head of the peg, the holes in the bench top are usually sufficiently enlarged at the upper end to permit the head to be pushed down, until its top is level with the bench top.

The arrangement of the screw, to the left of the worker, is termed the front bench vice. It is much simpler in construction than the back bench vice. Fig. 5 shows its construction. A movable piece of wood is placed in front of the end of the screw, called the vice tongue or key (Fig. 7), partly to hold the work more securely, partly to prevent its being injured by the screw. When a long piece of wood is fastened into the front bench vice for edge-planing, it is advisable to allow the under edge to rest upon a little block on a swivel, attached to the under side of the bench top. If the screws do not turn easily, the friction may be reduced by rubbing them well with pulverised plumbago.

Fig. 6. Bench Peg. 1/10.

Fig. 6. Bench Peg. 1/10.

Fig. 7. Vice Tongue or Key. 1/10.

Fig. 7. Vice Tongue or Key. 1/10.

Front bench vice.

On the side of the bench farthest from the worker is a trough or channel, called the bench well, in which tools not in actual use may be laid. Triangular pieces of wood, firmly attached to the ends of this well, facilitate the sweeping out of shavings, etc.

The different portions of the bench are fastened together by dovetailing, mortising, and iron screws.

The bench top rests upon feet or rails, and it is often furnished on the under side with a drawer or till. A similar drawer may be connected with the rails.

The wood used for the bench top should be oak, ash, beech, or hard pine ; for the screws, horn-beam or "figured " birch; for the well and the rails, fir or pine.

The complete bench described above is too large for general use in school slojd, the space for which is usually limited. As only one person can advantageously work at it, it is also too expensive.

Fig. 8. Single Bench. Vao Top, 5 feet long by 1} feet broad. Height, 2 feet 7 inches. Naas pattern.

Fig. 8. Single Bench. Vao-Top, 5 feet long by 1} feet broad. Height, 2 feet 7 inches. Naas pattern.

The bench represented in Fig. 8 is more suitable for schools where many benches are required. It is at once simple and practical. It takes up little space, and it can be procured for one-half - indeed for one-fourth - of the cost of the bench first described. It is furnished with a back bench vice only, consisting of a piece of wood moving on bolts, and worked by a screw fixed with a forked ivedge to the movable front jaw of the vice. The bolts must be firmly inserted in the detached portion of the vice, and must have their anterior ends made fast in a cross-piece; otherwise the movable portion of the vice will not move easily and surely backwards and forwards by means of the screw. To fasten a piece of wood quite steadily in the vice it should be balanced as nearly as possible on the top of the screw. When this is not done, it has a tendency to fall to one side, and if this frequently happens the vice will finally be destroyed.

Bench after the Nads pattern.

Fig. 9. Double Bench.

Fig. 9. Double Bench.

This bench may also be adapted for two persons by introducing a screw in each end of the bench top, as indicated in Fig. 9. The bench top in this instance ought to be rather broader than in the preceding. The height of the bench ought to be adapted to the height of the worker, and accordingly separate pieces of wood, provided with hinges, are attached to the upper or lower cross-bars of the feet, and by the raising or letting down of these the bench top is raised or lowered.

Adjustable double bench.

Fig. 10 is a bench of English manufacture, well adapted for slojd work, and is known as R. Trainor's Improved Bench.

R. Trainor's bench.

Fig. 10. Trainor's Bench *.

Fig. 10. Trainor's Bench *.

A bench top, B tool tray or bench well, C back strip, d tail (or back) bench vice, e side (or front) bench vice, / plane rest or fillet, g Merrill's bench stop, hh bench pegs, ii joint bolts, MM fore legs, NN rear legs, 0 front bottom rail, P back bottom rail.

This bench is constructed so as to be portable. It consists of a hard wood top A, 4 1/2 inches thick, made of beech or birch, and is supported by a strong framework MM NN P0 made of fir, and bolted and framed together. The forelegs MM are "strutted," in order to prevent the framework from shaking loose through constant use and pressure. The bench is 5 ft. long, and 2 ft. wide; and it can be made from 2 ft. 6 in. to 3 ft. high.

The side or front bench vice, e, attached to the bench is made of metal, and is called "Crossley and Macgregor's Patent Instantaneous Grip Vice." The tail or back bench vice, d, is of German pattern, and acts as a cramp vice in conjunction with the bench pegs hh. Only the screw part of this vice is made of metal the floor; its vices, pegs, and stops are all new designs, and being made of metal, they are easy to work, and do not readily get out of order. The space Z underneath is specially constructed to admit of the fitting up of lockers and drawers. The Holdfast is a simple appliance which is often used to secure pieces of wood to the bench in sawing, boring, chiselling, etc. The holdfast (Fig. 11), consists of a round iron or steel rod, furnished at the upper end with a strong arm. It is inserted in a hole bored in the bench top, the diameter of which is very little larger than that of the cylindrical portion of the holdfast. The piece of work is laid under the arm, and secured by a stroke from the mallet on the heel, in the direction a, and is loosened by a stroke in the direction b. The holdfast may therefore serve the same purpose as the back bench vice.

As was said above, this bench is well adapted for slojd work. It stands firmly in position without being screwed to

* For prices of this bench see p. 215.

The shooting board is a contrivance which may be advantageously used when a partially planed piece of wood has to be squared up at right angles to a plane surface or a straight edge.

The shooting-board (Fig. 12) consists of a piece of hard pine 1 1/2 inches thick, 8 inches broad, and from 2 to 2 1/2 feet long, on one side of which there is a rebate, which serves as a guide to the trying plane when in action. At the further end there is a smooth rectangular block, the inner side of which is carefully secured at right angles to the rebate of the plane rest. Under this plane rest a groove is hollowed out, in order that the shavings may not prevent the plane from lying close to the rebate during work. Instead of a rebate made in a thick piece of wood, two pieces may be fastened together, a narrower above a broader piece. In this way a rebate will be formed. Before they are fastened together, the under part of the inner edge of the top piece must be cut away so as to form the groove for shavings.

Fig. 11. Holdfast. 1/8

Fig. 11. Holdfast. 1/8.

Fig. 12. Shooting board, 1/15.

Fig. 12. Shooting-board, 1/15.

A. Plane rest, b. Block for square shooting, c. Rest for wood, d. Rebate and groove, e. Block for mitre shooting at an angle of 45*.

When the shooting-board is in use, it is secured between two bench pegs. The piece of wood which is to be squared is held and pressed against the trying-plane with the left hand, the plane being directed by the right. Care must be taken not to plane anything off the edge of the rebate, or to hurt the fingers.

The shooting-board may also be used for mitre shooting pieces of wood which are to be fastened together at an angle of 45°, by placing before the block for square-shooting a triangular block whose anterior edge forms an angle of 45° with the edge of the rebate. See Fig. 12.