The position and mioveinents of the body. - The worker should assume a position, in relation to his work, which enables the muscles of his arms to have free play in the most favourable direction for its execution, i.e., in a direction opposed to the line of resistance, or friction between the tool and the piece of wood. In certain exercises, such as planing and boring, this friction is, to some extent, increased by the necessary bending of the body over the tool, whereby the weight of the body helps to press it against the wood. In using some tools, e.g., the saw, this weight may also act as a kind of regulator, by gently setting the body in motion backwards and forwards. The reader is referred to Plates I.- VIII. for illustrations of some of the most important positions.*

Some Rules for the Slojd Teacher.

In all teaching, and not least in slojd teaching, the maintenance of order must be laid down as an indispensable condition. The following simple directions may serve for guidance to the teacher.

Order an indispensable condition.

Every pupil should have a fixed place at a bench. When circumstances permit, it is advisable to have at disposal as many benches (or when benches intended for two are used, half as many benches) as there are pupils taking part simultaneously in a lesson.

The pupils' places for work.

The benches and tools should be furnished with numbers, so that they can easily be distinguished from one another. The following tools should, if possible, belong to each bench, and be marked with its number: knife, trying-plane, smooth-ing-plane, jack-plane, square, marking-gauge, compasses, rule or metre measure, and scraper.f Other tools may serve the whole class in common.

Numbers on the benches and tools.

All tools should have fixed places. Those belonging to the bench may be allowed to lie upon it until the close of the lesson, but all tools in common use should be laid by or hung up immediately after use, in order that they may be easily found.

The teacher must take care that all the edge tools in use are well sharpened, and that any tool which gets out of order, or is broken, is repaired as soon as possible. If practicable, the pupils should do their own repairs.

Fixed places for tools.

* These plates are specially intended to illustrate the position of body which the worker should assume when beginning the particular exercise indicated, † These constitute the bench-set.

The sharpening and repairing of tools.

At the beginning of the lesson the pupils should, m an orderly way, get out their tools and work. The latter, if begun in a previous lesson, should be kept in boxes specially provided for the purpose, and should be marked with the pupils' names.

The work.

In order to teach and superintend in the full meaning of these terms, the teacher must not stand still in one place. He must go from one pupil to another with advice and criticism. The pupils, on the contrary, must, as far as possible, remain at their benches. If they desire any advice from the teacher, they must not attract his attention by calling out, but by some signal, e.g., holding up one hand, standing in front of the bench and looking towards him, etc. All unnecessary talking must be carefully avoided.

Teacher and pupils during work.

. The pupil himself, guided by the teacher, must select suitable wood. Waste must be avoided as far as possible.

The pupil must not be allowed to polish with sand-paper until the teacher has examined the work and found that sufficient use has been made of cutting tools. The sand-paper is to be kept by the teacher and given out by him as required. About 6 sq. in. is calculated for each model. The calculation is founded on the supposition that though the models become larger as the course proceeds, the greater facility of the pupil diminishes in about the same degree his need of sand-paper.

At the end of the lesson all the tools should be put back in their places, care being taken that all the saws are loosened. The tools should be counted by the "captain," or monitor, appointed for the class, after which the teacher sees that everything is in its right place. The wood and the pieces of work are put away tidily. The benches are brushed and made clean with a brush which should hang by the side of each bench, and the floor is Swept. The shavings, however, need not be carried away oftener than once or twice a week.

Selection of wood.


Putting the slojd room in order.

When the finished pieces of work have been " passed " by the teacher, a label should be stuck on, and on this label should be stated the number of the model and its name, the name and age of the pupil, and the number of hours spent in making it. If it is considered desirable to give every piece of work a value, this also may be mentioned on the label.

Finished work.

Although from the educational point of view it is advisable that the pupils should at once take home their work, it is generally for other reasons more expedient that it should remain in the school in the care of the teacher until it can be exhibited publicly at an examination or terminal break-ing-up. After this has taken place, the articles are to be regarded as the property of the makers. The sale of work for the benefit of the school should never be thought of.

A very good plan is to allow the pupils to take home their work as soon as it is finished, in order to show it to their parents, on the understanding that, after they have seen it, it is brought back to the school, to be kept there as long as necessary.

Taking the work home.

The teacher should enter in a day-book, arranged for the purpose, careful notes regarding the pupils taking part in the slojd lessons, their presence and absence from lessons, the articles they make, etc., etc.