Aluminium Bronze

An alloy the colour of gold, is fairly malleable, and can be forged at a red heat; takes a beautiful polish if burnished. Cleaned by immersion in dipping acid; goes a rich brown when exposed to the atmosphere. Annealed by bringing to a bright red heat, cooling in air to a red, then plunging into water. Can be soft soldered after joint has been coppered by dipping in copper sulphate and touched with an iron rod, silver soldered, or brazed.

Antimony

A bluish-white metal, very brittle; expands on solidifying. Used largely for type metal and alloying with other metals to give fine and sharp castings. A slight tap with a hammer will break an ingot of antimony, and the broken surface exhibits large shining facets.

Bismuth

A pinkish-white metal, brittle, very diamagnetic; expands on solidifying. Used for alloying with other metals to lower the melting-point. Pewterer's solder, which is very fusible, is composed of lead, tin, and bismuth.

Brass

A yellow metal, very malleable; takes a fine polish. Cleaned by immersion in dipping acid; turns black and green on exposure to atmosphere. Can be annealed by bringing slowly to a red heat and leaving to cool slowly in air; will break if moved when at a red heat. Can be soft soldered, silver soldered, brazed, and welded by the oxy-acetylene blowpipe.

Britannia Metal

-A nearly white metal, very malleable; takes a fine polish, and can be cleaned by immersion in strong soda or potash; darkens a very little on exposure to the atmosphere. Annealed by bringing to a temperature just above boiling water. Can only be soft soldered.

1 Although wrought iron is not cast, it contracts to about this extent after having been heated to a bright red. Some metals expand on cooling, and some nickel steel alloys neither contract nor expand by heating.

Bronze

An alloy of a rich brown colour, malleable; takes a high polish. Can be cleaned by immersion in dipping acid; goes a dark brown and eventually-green on exposure to atmosphere. Can be annealed by bringing carefully to a red heat and cooling slowly in air. Can be soft soldered, silver soldered, and brazed.

Cadmium

A white metal with bluish tinge, soft. Not used largely for manufacturing purposes. Forms a component of one of the most fusible alloys, i.e. Wood's alloys; it is also alloyed with silver for electroplating.

Chromium

A hard white metal very difficult to fuse. Used mostly for alloying with steel. Comparatively rare.

Cobalt

A bluish-white metal, malleable, ductile, and tenacious; takes a high polish; unaffectedly the atmosphere. Used in electroplating, seldom used in the manufacturing arts.

Copper

A red metal, very malleable; takes a high polish, and can be cleaned by immersion in dipping acid; turns black and eventually green on exposure to the atmosphere. Can be annealed by bringing to a red heat and quenching in water, and can be soft soldered, silver soldered, brazed, and welded by the oxy-acetylene blowpipe.